The Poorest Countries in the World Print E-mail

There are two standard methods of measuring the wealth of countries and how rich or poor its inhabitants are. The measure most often used is Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which represents the size of a country’s economy. A refinement of this is per-capita GDP, which is a measure of the average welfare and affluence, or poverty, of residents of a country. However, GDP and per-capita GDP are less useful when comparing economies across national boundaries – which one must do to determine the poorest countries in the world – because GDP is expressed in a country’s local currency.


The measure that most economists prefer is GDP at purchasing power parity. GDP (PPP) compares generalized differences in living standards on the whole between nations because PPP takes into account the relative cost of living and the inflation rates of countries, rather than using just exchange rates, which may distort the real differences in income.

 


The figures below include data and forecasts for the wealth of countries and regions from 2009 to 2013.
Source: the IMF (unless otherwise specified).


The Richest and Poorest Countries in The World, 2013 (Estimates - Data in Current International Dollar)

Gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita

Darkest red: highest GDP per capita (PPP)
Medium red: medium-high GDP per capita (PPP)
Light red: medium-low GDP per capita (PPP)
Lightest red: lowest GDP per capita (PPP)

 


The figures below include data and forecasts for the wealth of countries and regions from 2009 to 2013.
Source: the IMF (unless otherwise specified).

 

The World's Poorest Regions, Based on Gross Domestic Product  (PPP) Per Capita 2009-2013

Country Group Name20092010201120122013
1 Sub-Saharan Africa $2,186.32 $2,275.63 $2,380.97 $2,466.53 $2,579.75
2 ASEAN-5 $4,943.55 $5,286.66 $5,567.67 $5,933.58 $6,300.74
3 Developing Asia $4,743.59 $5,230.54 $5,717.57 $6,143.12 $6,622.62
4 Emerging market and developing economies $5,781.66 $6,217.59 $6,662.07 $7,020.48 $7,415.19
5 Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan $6,994.37 $7,306.53 $7,707.56 $7,975.06 $8,183.34
6 Middle East and North Africa $9,255.73 $9,700.74 $10,463.88 $10,827.38 $11,111.83
7 Latin America and the Caribbean $10,631.51 $11,284.95 $11,906.00 $12,331.61 $12,818.20
8 Commonwealth of Independent States $10,628.56 $11,254.34 $12,015.61 $12,616.37 $13,248.81
9 Central and eastern Europe $13,717.94 $14,443.23 $15,446.25 $15,871.55 $16,371.67
10 European Union $29,672.50 $30,588.77 $31,643.64 $32,021.45 $32,471.14
11 Euro area $31,763.09 $32,733.87 $33,812.99 $34,116.47 $34,510.94
12 Other advanced economies (Advanced economies minus G7 and euro area) $33,410.87 $35,526.60 $37,144.09 $38,212.69 $39,505.01
13 Advanced economies $36,753.71 $38,147.68 $39,384.50 $40,389.83 $41,368.85
14 Major advanced economies (G7) $38,351.14 $39,744.37 $40,986.12 $42,119.01 $43,138.63


The figures below include data and forecasts for the wealth of countries and regions from 2009 to 2013.
Source: the IMF (unless otherwise specified).

 

The World's Poorest Countries, Based on Gross Domestic Product (PPP) Per Capita 2009-2013

Country20092010201120122013Estimates
Start After
1 Congo - Kinshasa $311.89 $328.87 $348.53 $368.91 $394.25 1983
2 Zimbabwe $428.91 $472.75 $529.63 $558.58 $589.46 2008
3 Burundi $566.80 $582.15 $604.96 $625.43 $648.58 0
4 Liberia $564.75 $582.63 $625.74 $672.56 $716.04 2009
5 Eritrea $680.18 $683.08 $735.17 $776.79 $792.13 2006
6 Central African Republic $738.10 $751.95 $773.98 $800.22 $827.93 2004
7 Niger $674.52 $733.68 $742.43 $815.35 $853.43 2009
8 Malawi $782.72 $821.35 $850.82 $857.67 $893.84 2009
9 Madagascar $939.73 $931.79 $944.47 $955.31 $972.07 2006
10 Afghanistan $855.91 $912.23 $967.53 $1,053.81 $1,072.19 2007
11 Mali $1,065.86 $1,108.75 $1,128.03 $1,100.24 $1,136.77 2010
12 Togo $970.35 $1,000.40 $1,048.17 $1,096.21 $1,145.94 2010
13 Guinea $1,041.14 $1,049.25 $1,086.34 $1,121.36 $1,162.18 2009
14 Ethiopia $972.26 $1,041.47 $1,119.36 $1,190.56 $1,258.60 2008
15 Mozambique $953.29 $1,014.19 $1,089.85 $1,169.17 $1,262.96 2010
16 Guinea-Bissau $1,150.00 $1,181.08 $1,244.52 $1,222.76 $1,268.46 2004
17 Comoros $1,189.13 $1,204.44 $1,231.65 $1,257.99 $1,296.77 2003
18 South Sudan $2,206.23 $1,006.16 $1,324.10 2008
19 Nepal $1,148.06 $1,198.00 $1,249.11 $1,308.07 $1,347.62 2011
20 Haiti $1,205.54 $1,163.46 $1,234.93 $1,242.82 $1,358.10 0
21 Uganda $1,280.57 $1,326.62 $1,399.98 $1,414.93 $1,459.62 2010
22 Burkina Faso $1,188.62 $1,261.22 $1,302.26 $1,399.50 $1,488.33 2010
23 Myanmar $1,198.80 $1,254.53 $1,324.61 $1,405.03 $1,490.53 2006
24 Sierra Leone $1,030.78 $1,072.07 $1,131.30 $1,344.25 $1,559.95 2011
25 Rwanda $1,201.01 $1,278.08 $1,384.04 $1,485.91 $1,591.71 2010
26 Tanzania $1,322.92 $1,392.88 $1,469.19 $1,566.71 $1,670.21 2006
27 Benin $1,559.98 $1,575.72 $1,620.35 $1,666.74 $1,717.82 2011
28 Ivory Coast $1,670.53 $1,683.79 $1,590.70 $1,726.65 $1,839.67 2009
29 Zambia $1,425.19 $1,516.53 $1,614.79 $1,721.65 $1,841.64 2010
30 Kenya $1,614.61 $1,680.77 $1,740.58 $1,802.38 $1,884.57 2010
31 The Gambia $1,812.31 $1,903.57 $1,810.67 $1,864.39 $2,008.23 2010
32 Chad $1,648.25 $1,841.12 $1,844.22 $1,923.70 $2,061.63 2004
33 Senegal $1,880.53 $1,934.95 $1,974.90 $2,026.55 $2,086.38 2011
34 Bangladesh $1,664.04 $1,774.11 $1,909.46 $2,039.48 $2,174.32 2010
35 Mauritania $1,863.56 $1,936.86 $2,006.72 $2,121.62 $2,230.44 2009
36 Lesotho $1,749.83 $1,879.65 $2,024.32 $2,137.53 $2,244.10 2006
37 Yemen $2,452.37 $2,598.59 $2,306.66 $2,282.67 $2,351.46 2008
38 Tajikistan $1,819.78 $1,941.58 $2,079.45 $2,228.60 $2,373.96 2011
39 Sao Tome and Principe $2,057.05 $2,140.62 $2,251.73 $2,337.21 $2,432.93 2010
40 Cameroon $2,147.11 $2,193.22 $2,274.91 $2,366.24 $2,473.13 2010
41 Sudan $2,151.61 $2,178.85 $2,682.99 $2,544.63 $2,550.10 2006
42 Kyrgyz Republic $2,225.12 $2,219.92 $2,379.48 $2,376.49 $2,567.82 2010
43 Cambodia $1,942.74 $2,068.02 $2,239.24 $2,402.33 $2,579.06 2008
44 Djibouti $2,435.53 $2,484.57 $2,578.72 $2,676.96 $2,778.25 1999
45 Nigeria $2,272.34 $2,419.82 $2,582.18 $2,720.01 $2,883.44 2006
46 Papua New Guinea $2,194.12 $2,333.41 $2,582.26 $2,797.33 $2,896.83 2010
47 Pakistan $2,642.04 $2,702.39 $2,785.76 $2,880.67 $2,969.68 2011
48 Lao P.D.R. $2,356.57 $2,545.28 $2,769.60 $3,011.21 $3,260.59 2011
49 Tuvalu $3,262.94 $3,162.08 $3,252.77 $3,338.15 $3,423.06 2011
50 Solomon Islands $2,763.01 $2,894.28 $3,188.88 $3,345.35 $3,458.50 2010
51 Ghana $2,560.45 $2,732.61 $3,112.88 $3,305.10 $3,501.53 0
52 Moldova $2,851.23 $3,097.60 $3,381.86 $3,415.03 $3,613.35 2012
53 Vietnam $2,939.37 $3,143.00 $3,358.62 $3,547.77 $3,750.00 2010
54 Uzbekistan $2,796.84 $3,021.17 $3,272.77 $3,555.08 $3,820.65 2010
55 India $3,039.28 $3,378.15 $3,666.90 $3,829.70 $4,060.22 2010
56 Cape Verde $3,547.84 $3,730.33 $3,947.20 $4,132.81 $4,313.48 2008
57 Nicaragua $3,830.59 $3,975.03 $4,228.43 $4,458.43 $4,641.61 2007
58 Philippines $3,713.18 $3,980.01 $4,152.00 $4,429.59 $4,691.15 2011
59 Honduras $4,188.74 $4,313.15 $4,475.32 $4,609.60 $4,741.16 2001
60 Congo - Brazzaville $4,132.77 $4,426.16 $4,543.38 $4,666.56 $4,937.41 2004
61 Fiji $4,438.80 $4,471.24 $4,628.75 $4,785.63 $4,947.38 2007
62 Vanuatu $4,718.47 $4,751.07 $4,811.64 $4,916.21 $5,093.80 2009
63 Indonesia $4,102.35 $4,353.81 $4,668.65 $4,977.09 $5,302.03 2010
64 Bolivia $4,447.65 $4,603.57 $4,850.65 $5,099.27 $5,330.64 1981
65 Guatemala $4,823.08 $4,907.30 $5,092.57 $5,208.96 $5,335.95 2005
66 Morocco $4,602.44 $4,782.70 $5,074.65 $5,265.18 $5,537.51 2011
67 Swaziland $5,647.84 $5,766.38 $5,835.24 $5,781.53 $5,806.66 2008
68 Kiribati $5,634.97 $5,685.90 $5,816.54 $5,973.05 $6,125.06 2009
69 Armenia $4,978.66 $5,105.12 $5,404.94 $5,838.26 $6,128.16 2011
70 Mongolia $3,791.84 $4,020.34 $4,770.43 $5,371.64 $6,134.48 2011
71 Jordan $5,686.33 $5,767.22 $5,907.01 $6,042.29 $6,198.91 2010
72 Samoa $5,690.52 $5,767.88 $5,989.75 $6,148.96 $6,282.41 2011
73 Georgia $4,757.85 $5,064.02 $5,502.30 $5,929.75 $6,355.74 2011
74 Sri Lanka $4,759.84 $5,169.52 $5,676.37 $6,106.59 $6,550.22 2011
75 Angola $5,650.77 $5,748.94 $5,923.85 $6,346.74 $6,650.29 2000
76 Egypt $6,093.20 $6,343.95 $6,454.82 $6,544.87 $6,652.92 2010
77 Paraguay $5,302.07 $5,957.25 $6,223.86 $6,136.46 $6,787.73 2011
78 Bhutan $4,956.71 $5,514.57 $6,009.46 $6,664.71 $7,187.72 0
79 Micronesia $6,527.70 $6,800.70 $7,103.74 $7,346.28 $7,532.58 2011
80 Ukraine $6,312.71 $6,685.64 $7,210.44 $7,373.99 $7,532.92 2011
81 Iraq $5,818.71 $6,155.52 $6,618.65 $7,079.89 $7,604.93 2004
82 El Salvador $6,805.30 $6,962.90 $7,222.11 $7,437.93 $7,648.21 2007
83 Algeria $6,826.15 $7,059.57 $7,271.85 $7,477.07 $7,736.90 2011
84 Tonga $6,938.53 $7,116.17 $7,344.26 $7,547.99 $7,753.90 2006
85 Namibia $6,504.63 $6,967.91 $7,399.34 $7,771.70 $8,159.88 2008
86 Albania $7,184.52 $7,497.85 $7,848.17 $8,052.18 $8,290.46 2008
87 Bosnia and Herzegovina $7,659.98 $7,832.80 $8,115.22 $8,215.95 $8,406.07 2010
88 Guyana $6,685.73 $7,050.04 $7,569.11 $7,938.78 $8,488.39 2002
89 Marshall Islands $7,941.18 $8,394.30 $8,604.00 $8,683.18 $8,793.02 2011
90 Belize $7,907.53 $8,109.40 $8,302.55 $8,753.51 $8,963.61 2012
91 Jamaica $8,788.88 $8,742.90 $9,027.45 $9,159.24 $9,323.34 2010
92 Turkmenistan $6,249.51 $6,804.24 $7,842.01 $8,718.20 $9,394.35 2007
93 Maldives $7,768.81 $8,289.15 $8,913.04 $9,234.85 $9,579.23 2006
94 Dominican Republic $8,260.45 $8,859.72 $9,286.57 $9,646.07 $9,845.60 2004
95 China $6,781.15 $7,553.38 $8,391.12 $9,161.97 $10,011.48 2012
96 Tunisia $9,143.82 $9,457.23 $9,359.29 $9,774.74 $10,200.29 2010
97 Ecuador $8,526.58 $8,791.22 $9,552.16 $10,055.89 $10,517.91 2010
98 Timor-Leste $7,559.29 $8,185.97 $9,028.30 $9,872.85 $10,783.70 2009
99 Serbia $10,124.79 $10,117.79 $10,404.78 $10,404.84 $10,787.58 2011
100 Thailand $8,482.04 $9,215.49 $9,390.12 $10,125.58 $10,848.74 2011
101 FYR Macedonia $9,576.94 $9,963.69 $10,444.03 $10,579.03 $10,945.61 2011
102 Azerbaijan $9,619.12 $10,116.65 $10,213.21 $10,478.23 $11,003.54 2011
103 Colombia $9,202.93 $9,582.59 $10,314.83 $10,791.73 $11,284.22 2009
104 Peru $8,619.49 $9,358.03 $10,062.28 $10,719.48 $11,403.04 2009
105 South Africa $10,218.95 $10,562.60 $11,028.58 $11,375.48 $11,750.37 2011
106 St. Vincent and the Grenadines $11,373.04 $11,246.56 $11,522.11 $11,776.12 $12,081.34 2001
107 Montenegro $10,252.43 $10,597.57 $11,628.15 $11,800.31 $12,101.08 2011
108 Brazil $10,383.31 $11,216.10 $11,666.00 $11,875.26 $12,340.18 2010
109 Suriname $10,754.42 $11,197.04 $11,815.34 $12,397.85 $12,989.56 2007
110 Iran $12,102.84 $12,789.17 $13,311.98 $13,127.14 $13,008.37 2010
111 Costa Rica $10,551.82 $11,336.50 $11,926.78 $12,606.29 $13,205.99 2011
112 Romania $11,923.27 $11,964.66 $12,519.98 $12,808.08 $13,251.92 2011
113 Saint Lucia $12,516.09 $12,642.01 $13,010.51 $13,103.72 $13,381.42 2011
114 Venezuela $12,497.81 $12,280.68 $12,868.12 $13,615.82 $13,633.61 2010
115 Grenada $13,182.39 $13,261.79 $13,608.65 $13,696.75 $13,948.43 2009
116 Libya $14,396.12 $15,044.72 $5,903.80 $12,066.45 $14,474.75 2008
117 Dominica $13,022.86 $13,301.28 $13,855.21 $14,166.15 $14,579.73 2011
118 Kazakhstan $11,515.31 $12,312.74 $13,253.30 $13,892.83 $14,750.46 2012
119 Bulgaria $12,645.06 $12,965.22 $13,812.32 $14,311.58 $14,870.19 2012
120 Turkey $12,177.09 $13,293.92 $14,543.16 $15,001.41 $15,578.38 2011
121 Mexico $13,265.43 $13,945.35 $14,616.14 $15,311.77 $15,931.75 2012
122 Lebanon $14,104.49 $15,097.20 $15,449.48 $15,756.94 $16,126.73 2007
123 Belarus $12,703.78 $13,897.84 $15,056.27 $15,633.70 $16,307.68 2010
124 Mauritius $13,443.85 $14,120.57 $14,908.40 $15,591.97 $16,350.47 2011
125 Saint Kitts and Nevis $16,804.93 $16,703.39 $16,415.52 $16,240.96 $16,495.30 2003
126 Uruguay $12,775.64 $14,049.00 $15,112.32 $15,910.80 $16,728.30 2005
127 Panama $11,863.85 $12,689.90 $14,112.47 $15,616.75 $16,993.82 2010
128 Gabon $13,513.39 $14,411.19 $15,530.02 $16,547.59 $17,586.34 0
129 Botswana $14,167.56 $15,183.79 $16,105.21 $16,820.29 $17,595.63 2008
130 Malaysia $14,168.64 $15,112.55 $16,008.99 $16,922.37 $17,775.70 2012
131 Croatia $17,548.35 $17,422.11 $17,849.81 $17,810.14 $18,066.82 2010
132 Antigua and Barbuda $18,977.55 $17,591.02 $17,433.40 $18,026.66 $18,625.96 2009
133 Russia $14,834.48 $15,687.18 $16,767.87 $17,708.74 $18,670.53 2012
134 Argentina $14,683.71 $16,061.65 $17,659.54 $18,112.33 $18,709.31 2010
135 Latvia $14,828.72 $15,182.51 $16,717.35 $18,254.66 $19,384.91 2012
136 Chile $15,211.11 $16,147.11 $17,309.84 $18,419.04 $19,474.74 2009
137 Hungary $18,291.32 $18,798.10 $19,570.72 $19,637.59 $19,998.05 2011
138 Trinidad and Tobago $19,733.46 $19,923.67 $19,738.31 $20,087.13 $20,746.28 2010
139 Poland $18,028.68 $18,961.84 $20,012.74 $20,591.75 $21,005.39 2012
140 Estonia $17,835.49 $18,679.75 $20,657.05 $21,713.22 $22,731.03 2012
141 Lithuania $16,594.66 $17,345.36 $20,342.57 $21,615.34 $22,787.84 2011
142 Portugal $22,660.00 $23,384.64 $23,657.82 $23,385.17 $23,185.21 2012
143 Greece $28,069.82 $26,960.70 $25,509.98 $24,505.04 $23,930.22 2011
144 Slovak Republic $21,052.94 $22,218.63 $23,365.99 $24,249.11 $24,971.88 2012
145 Equatorial Guinea $25,749.77 $24,728.42 $25,669.92 $25,929.18 $25,117.18 2010
146 Barbados $24,073.62 $24,391.56 $24,989.02 $25,372.68 $25,854.24 2010
147 Seychelles $22,100.16 $23,007.76 $24,394.85 $25,229.48 $26,168.91 2011
148 Czech Republic $25,234.06 $26,110.64 $27,111.90 $27,190.92 $27,662.99 2010
149 Malta $24,504.30 $25,499.53 $26,369.76 $27,022.36 $27,786.99 2008
150 Slovenia $27,213.55 $27,719.77 $28,435.78 $28,195.24 $28,013.94 2011
151 Bahrain $27,220.37 $27,129.38 $27,735.31 $28,743.82 $29,832.89 2010
152 Oman $25,591.17 $31,341.16 $28,148.41 $29,166.39 $29,924.88 2009
153 Italy $29,067.71 $29,817.11 $30,422.23 $30,136.38 $30,094.06 2012
154 Spain $29,545.86 $29,751.37 $30,477.65 $30,557.47 $30,620.15 2012
155 New Zealand $27,375.74 $27,899.40 $28,667.35 $29,730.30 $30,803.76 2011
156 The Bahamas $29,512.91 $29,629.83 $30,414.74 $31,382.41 $32,397.94 2008
157 Saudi Arabia $25,938.31 $27,313.87 $29,400.68 $31,275.49 $32,469.34 2010
158 Israel $28,916.89 $30,101.30 $31,466.29 $32,312.42 $33,282.21 2012
159 Korea $27,709.93 $29,717.18 $31,220.48 $32,272.12 $33,580.49 2011
160 France $33,121.23 $33,959.54 $35,089.79 $35,547.96 $35,941.52 2011
161 Finland $33,054.44 $34,455.81 $35,993.69 $36,395.01 $37,012.46 2011
162 United Kingdom $34,877.64 $35,708.02 $36,525.41 $36,941.06 $37,501.70 2010
163 Japan $32,323.32 $34,280.08 $34,853.04 $36,265.75 $37,525.38 2012
164 Belgium $35,662.09 $36,716.96 $37,611.05 $37,883.06 $38,286.44 2012
165 Denmark $35,444.34 $36,330.97 $37,340.58 $37,657.20 $38,521.26 2011
166 Kuwait $37,704.42 $36,290.74 $38,332.08 $39,888.76 $39,861.23 2011
167 Germany $34,265.46 $36,172.68 $38,077.22 $39,028.39 $39,993.34 2012
168 Taiwan $31,782.32 $35,607.45 $37,742.54 $38,749.20 $40,392.86 2012
169 Iceland $38,010.73 $36,572.42 $38,039.16 $39,223.96 $40,401.63 2011
170 Sweden $35,787.73 $38,230.34 $40,228.87 $41,191.47 $42,037.48 2012
171 Netherlands $39,906.18 $40,888.01 $41,976.87 $42,193.69 $42,493.49 2011
172 Ireland $39,616.12 $39,650.71 $40,894.86 $41,920.73 $42,806.38 2011
173 Austria $38,577.30 $39,777.04 $41,556.13 $42,408.58 $43,344.79 2012
174 Canada $38,933.71 $40,223.54 $41,690.04 $42,734.36 $43,593.74 2012
175 Australia $38,595.00 $39,674.44 $40,949.02 $42,640.28 $44,073.81 2011
176 Switzerland $41,785.02 $43,156.72 $44,451.65 $45,417.81 $46,474.95 2011
177 United Arab Emirates $45,913.80 $45,759.38 $47,728.78 $49,011.59 $49,883.58 2009
178 United States $45,461.43 $46,811.06 $48,328.25 $49,922.11 $51,248.21 2011
179 Hong Kong $44,120.22 $47,369.93 $50,296.10 $51,494.15 $53,432.23 2011
180 Brunei Darussalam $50,985.72 $52,091.22 $53,557.21 $54,388.65 $55,111.20 2011
181 Norway $51,922.18 $52,034.15 $53,157.75 $55,008.77 $56,663.47 2012
182 Singapore $49,919.56 $56,865.16 $59,594.79 $60,409.98 $61,567.28 2011
183 Luxembourg $76,832.29 $78,641.61 $79,777.99 $79,785.04 $79,593.91 2011
184 Qatar $77,445.61 $88,313.13 $97,987.01 $102,211.00 $105,091.42 2011

DEFINITIONS:

 

GDP (gross domestic product) is the sum of the gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

 

GDP PPP (purchasing power parity) is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Purchasing power parities (PPPs) are the rates of currency conversion that eliminate the differences in price levels between countries.

 

GDP (PPP) per capita is GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population. Please note: Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations.

GNI (gross national income) is gross domestic product (GDP) plus net receipts of primary income (employee compensation and investment income) from abroad. GDP is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output.

 

GNI per capita is gross national income divided by mid-year population.

 

PPP GNI is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.

Definitions from the World Bank, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and IMF.

BEYOND GDP

It is important to notice that GDP is not a perfect measure to describe the well-being and quality of life of populations, and, in fact, there are other indexes that take into account other variables such as life expectancy, income distribution, literacy, etc., such as the UN Human Development Index and the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare. In fact, GDP is often considered imperfect even to measure overall economic strength; see a report released in 2009 by a commission chaired by Nobel Prize-winning economists Professor Joseph E. Stiglitz and Professor Amartya Sen, and by Professor Jean-Paul Fitoussi [DOWNLOAD PDF]
See also: http://www.beyond-gdp.eu/

WEALTH DISTRIBUTION MAP
For a wealth distribution map, with historical data and current data, see:
http://www.gfmag.com/tools/global-database/economic-data/11944-wealth distribution-income-inequality.html


A background on Gross Domestic Product Purchasing Power Parity
(GDP PPP) from the World Bank - World Development Indicators:


Comparable measures of economic activity, wealth and living standards are useful for many purposes. Foreign investors, traders, and potential immigrants want to know an economy’s market size, productivity and prices. The globalization of markets for goods, services, finance, labor and ideas reinforces the interdependence of economies and the need to measure them on a common scale. Countries cannot share responsibilities for global public goods—the environment, security, development assistance and global governance—without meaningful assessments of the real size of their economies and the wealth of their people.

But comparing the real size of economies is not easy. Even in an integrated global economy, large differences in the costs of goods and services persist. Exchange rates can be used to convert values in one currency to another, but since they do not fully reflect differences in price levels, they cannot measure the real volume of output. Exchange rates are determined by the demand for and supply of currencies used in international transactions, ignoring domestic economic sectors where prices are set in relative isolation from the rest of the world—thus the familiar experience of international travelers, who discover that they can buy more, or less, of the same goods in different countries when converting their money using the prevailing exchange rates.

To measure the real size of the world’s economy and to compare costs of living across coun­tries, we need to adjust for differences in purchasing power. Finding a way to adjust for those differences has given rise to the efforts to measure purchasing power parities (PPPs), which convert local currencies to a common currency, such as the U.S. dollar. Purchasing power parities are needed because similar goods and services have widely varying prices across countries when converted to a common currency using market exchange rates. Differences are greatest in sectors not commonly traded in­ternationally, such as housing, construction and health and education services. Price differences are smaller for widely traded products, such as machinery and equipment, af­ter allowing for taxes, distributor margins and transport costs. PPPs include the prices of tradable and nontradable goods, us­ing weights that reflect their relative importance in total GDP.

Since 1970 the International Comparison Program (ICP) has conducted eight rounds of PPP estimates for the major components of countries’ gross domestic product (GDP)—the most recent for 2005. High-income countries regularly take part in such programs, but 2005 was the first time since 1993 that comprehensive price surveys were carried out in developing economies. An unprecedented number, 101, took part. These new PPPs provide a better and more complete view of the world economy.

In 2005 the ICP report brought together the results of two separate PPP programs. The first is the global ICP program conducted by the ICP Global Office within the World Bank. The program was organized in five geographic areas: Africa, Asia-Pacific, Commonwealth of Independent States, Latin America and Western Asia. In parallel, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) conducted its 2005 PPP program that included 46 countries. Eurostat covered 37 countries—the 25 EU member states, the EFTA countries and other European countries. The OECD part of the program included nine other countries.

The ICP Global Office has combined the results from each of the five regions with those from the OECD/Eurostat PPP Program into an overall global comparison.

Please note: The IMF is not a primary source for purchasing power parity (PPP) data. For primary source information, please refer to one of the following sources: the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Bank, Eurostat.


Central and Eastern Europe

Composed of 14 countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Turkey.

Commonwealth of Independent States
Composed of 11 CIS countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Georgia and Mongolia, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarities in economic structure.


Developing Asia

Composed of 26 countries: Republic of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Kiribati, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor), Tonga, Vanuatu and Vietnam.


Western Hemisphere

Composed of 32 countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.


Middle East

Composed of 14 countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates and Republic of Yemen.

Emerging and Developing Economies

Composed of 149 countries: Republic of Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor), Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Republic of Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe.


Euro Area

Composed of 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia and Spain.


East Asia and Pacific

Composed of 22 countries: Cambodia, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Kiribati, Dem. Rep. Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, American Samoa, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor), Tonga, Vanuatu, Vietnam.


South Asia

Composed of 8 countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.


Sub-Saharan Africa

Composed of 45 countries: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe