Source
Central bank

Bank of Canada

International Reserves

USD 82.7 billion (2016)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved January 2017

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 1,627.3 billion (2017, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 1,742.7 billion (2017, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
2.6% 2.1% 1% -3% 3.1% 3.1% 1.8%
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*    
2.2% 2.5% 1.1% 1.2% 1.9%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 44,412.1 (2017, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 47,560.3 (2017, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2017*
2.20% 2.10% 1.87% 1.55% 1.4%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 1.6%
  • industry: 27.7%
  • services: 70.7%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

1.6% (2014)

OECD, data retrieved January 2017

Inflation
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
0.9% 1.9% 1.1% 1.6% 2.1%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
7.1% 6.9% 6.9% 7.0% 7.1%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

4.3% (Total, 2015)

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
86.1% 86.2% 91.5% 92.1% 90.5%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
-1.9% -0.5% -1.3% -2.5% -2.3%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AAA

Moody's: Aaa

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated as of January 24th 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2013 2014 2015
USD 2113.8 billion USD 2095.4 billion USD 1593.4 billion
Largest companies

Royal Bank of Canada, TD Bank Group, Bank of Nova Scotia, Bank of Montreal, Manulife Financial, Brookfield Asset Management, Canadian Imperial Bank, Sun Life Financial, Kraft Heinz Company, Power Corp of Canada, BCE, Canadian National Railway, Magna International, Couche Tard, Enbridge, Suncor Energy, Rogers Communications, National Bank of Canada, Fairfax Financial, TELUS, George Weston, Agrium, Canadian Natural Resources, PotashCorp, TransCanada, Canadian Pacific Railway, Cenovus Energy, Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Husky Energy, Barrick Gold, CGI Group, Onex, Fortis (Canada), Hydro One, Intact Financial, Saputo, Canadian Tire, Restaurant Brands International, Bombardier, Metro, Goldcorp, Industrial Alliance Insurance, Shaw Communications, Teck Resources, Empire, Pembina Pipeline, SNC-Lavalin Group, Air Canada, Hudson's Bay, Canadian Utilities, Crescent Point Energy, E-L Financial, Laurentian Bank, Ivanhoe Mines.

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -50.1 billion (2017 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-3.1% (2017 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

31.5% (2015)

Shares in world total merchandising export

2.5% (2015)

Shares in world total commercial services export

1.6% (2015)

Total exports

USD 402.4 billion (2016 estimate)

Export commodities

Motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Total imports

USD 419.0 billion (2016 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Exports - major partners

US 76.7% (2015)

Imports - major partners

US 53.1%, China 12.2%, Mexico 5.8% (2015)

FDI inflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 71,753 million USD 58,506 million USD 48,643 million
FDI outflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 54,879 million USD 55,688 million USD 67,182 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2012 2013 2014 2015
USD 37568.6 million USD 30672.5 million USD 47560.9 million USD 87826.2 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

Encana Corp, Athlon Energy Inc, United States, USD 6.8 billion / Amaya Gaming Group Inc, Oldford Group Ltd, Isle of Man, USD 5.0 billion / Fortis Inc, UNS Energy Corp, United States, USD 4.5 billion

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

CPPIB Credit Investments Inc, GE Antares Capital, United States, USD 12.0 billions / Bank of Montreal,Ontario, Canada, General Electric Capital Corp-Transportation Finance Business, United States, USD 8.9 billions / Investor Group, TransGrid Ltd-99-Year Lease, Australia, USD 7.4 billions / Element Financial Corp, GE Capital Fleet Services-US & Mexico Fleet Operations, United States, USD 7.2 billions / Investor Group, Fortum Distribution AB, Sweden, USD 7.0 billions / Royal Bank of Canada, City National Corp, United States, USD 5.4 billions / Informatica Corp SPV, Informatica Corp, United States, USD 5.2 billions / Investor Group, SIG Combibloc Group AG, Switzerland, USD 4.7 billions / Investor Group, TDF SA-Assets, France, USD 4.5 billions / Manufacturers Life Insurance Co, Standard Life Financial Inc, Canada, USD 3.7 billions / Concordia Healthcare Corp, Amdipharm Mercury Co Ltd, United Kingdom, USD 3.5 billions / Hudson's Bay Co, GALERIA Kaufhof GmbH, Germany, USD 3.2 billions

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 22 out of 190 countries (2016)

Subcategories:

Starting a business: 2 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 112 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 43 out of 190 countries

Getting credit: 7 out of 190 countries

Protecting investors: 7 out of 190 countries

Trading across border: 46 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 17 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 57 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 108 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 15 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

15 out of 138 countries

(2016-2017)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 6 / Score: 77.97 (Mostly free) (2017)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC-5 (6 time zones)

Total area

9,984,670 sq km

Capital

Ottawa

Currency

Canadian dollars (CAD) 

Government type

Federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Languages

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Religions

Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2016* 2021*
27.632 million 30.647 million 33.959 million 36.209 million 38.42 million

*Estimate  

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2015
69% 76% 80% 82%
Population median age

42 years (2016 estimate)

Population growth rate

0.74% (2016 estimate)

Life expectancy

81.9 years (2016 estimate)

Literacy

N/A

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

N/A

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

33.7 (2010)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2017)

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 43.52%   Mobile 82.98% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

88.47% (2015)

Mercer Cost of living index

Vancouver: 142nd
Toronto: 143rd
Montreal: 155th
Calgary: 162nd
Ottawa: 171st

(2016)

CO2 emissions

13.5 (2013)

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