Central bank

The People's Bank of China

International Reserves

US$ 3.9 trillion (Source: World Bank; Data updated: 2014)

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

US$ 11.285 trillion (2015 estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

19.230 trillion of International dollars (2015 estimate)

Real GDP growth
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
10.1% 10.1% 11.3% 12.7% 14.2% 9.6% 9.2% 10.4%
2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*      
9.3% 7.7% 7.7% 7.4% 7.1%      


GDP per capita - current prices

US$ 8,211 (2015 estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

19,230 International Dollars (2015 estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2015*
2.33% 4.11% 7.43% 13.82% 17.00%


GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 10% 
  • industry: 43.9% 
  • services: 46.1% (2013 estimate)
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)



2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*
5.4% 2.6% 2.6% 2.3% 2.5%


Unemployment rate
2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*
4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1%


Household saving rates



Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014* 2015*
36.6% 36.5% 37.4% 39.4% 40.7% 41.8%


Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2010 2011 2012 20013 2014* 2015*
-1.2% 0.6% 0.2% -0.9% -1.0% -0.8%


Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA-

Moody's rating: Aa3

Moody's outlook: STA

(Foreign Currency Government Bond Ratings; Data last updated Sept 2014)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2011* 2012 2013**
US$3.389 trillion US$5.753 trillion US$6.499 trillion

*2011 Estimate    *2013 Estimate 

Largest companies in China

ICBC, China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, PetroChina, Sinopec-China Petroleum, Ping An Insurance Group, Bank of Communications, China Life Insurance, China Merchants Bank, China Minsheng Banking, China Shenhua Energy, Industrial Bank, Shanghai Pudong Development, China Citic Bank, China Telecom, SAIC Motor, China Everbright Bank, China State Construction, China Pacific Insurance, People's Insurance Company, Ping An Bank, China Vanke, China Communications Construction, China Railway Construction, Huaxia Bank, Huaneng Power International, Tencent Holdings, Bank of Beijing, New China Life Insurance, Gree Electric Appliances, Poly Real Estate, Baoshan Iron & Steel, Evergrande Real Estate, Anhui Conch Cement, Daqin Railway, China National Building, China Cinda Asset Management, CSR, GD Power Development, China Coal Energy, Midea Group Co. Ltd., Baidu, Citic Securities, Dongfeng Motor Group, Fosun International, Metallurgical Corp of China, China Yangtze Power, China CNR, Sinohydro Group, Longfor Properties, China Shipbuilding Industry, Great Wall Motor, Datang, International Power, Kweichow Moutai, Jiangxi Copper, Sinopharm Group, Zhejiang Zheneng Electric Power, Shanghai International Port, Huadian Power International, Shanghai Electric Group, Aluminum Corp of China, Haitong Securities, China Oilfield Services, Weichai Power, Qingdao Haier, Shaanxi Coal Industry, Chongqing Rural Bank, Guangzhou R&F, Tingyi Holding, Henan Shuanghui Investment, China Eastern Airlines, Huishang Bank Corporation Limited, China Southern Airlines, Bank of Ningbo, Bank of Nanjing, Suning Appliance, BYD, Inner Mongolia Yili, Zoomlion Heavy Industry, Hebei Iron & Steel, Want Want China, Wuliangye Yibin, Sino-Ocean Land Holdings, Xiamen C&,Harbin Bank, Gemdale, Greentown China Holdings, China Cosco Holdings, GF Securities, BBMG, China Merchants Property, China National Chemical, TCL Corp, China International Marine, Shanghai Construction, Jiangsu Yanghe Brewery, Zijin Mining Group, Sany Heavy Industry, Wuhan Iron & Steel, Guangdong Electric Power, Shanghai Pharmaceuticals, Netease, SDIC Power Holdings, Shenzhen Overseas, SOHO China, China Longyuan Power, Chongqing, Changan Auto, Yanzhou Coal Mining, Sunac China Holdings, Hengan International Group, Angang Steel, Shanxi Taigang Stainless, China Hongqiao Group, Bank of Chongqing, Dongfang Electric, SINOPEC Engineering (Group), China Merchants Securities, Hikvision, Huatai Securities, Minmetals Development, China Communications Services, China National Materials, Maanshan Iron & Steel, China Gezhouba, BOE Technology Group, Gansu Jiu Steel Group Hongxing Iron & Steel, Hainan Airlines, Great Wall Technology, Guangzhou Automobile Group Co. Ltd., Shanghai Material Trading, Hunan Valin Steel, Kaisa Group Holdings, Yunnan Baiyao Group, NetDragon Websoft, Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel, Tsingtao Brewery, Pang Da Automobile Trade, Financial Street Holdings, Yang Quan Coal Industry, Tongling Nonferrous Metals, Wanhua Chemical Group, Sinomach Automobile, Sichuan Changhong Electric, China Fortune Land Development, New Hope Liuhe, Shui On Land, Shandong Iron and Steel, Yunnan Yuntianhua

Current account balance

US$ 224.336 billion (2014 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

2.237% of GDP (2014 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP(Exports of goods and services)

26.4% (2013)

(Data released on Oct 2014)

Shares in world total merchandising export

11.13% (2012)

(Data were released in March 2014)

Shares in world total commercial services export

4.35% (2012)

(Data were released in 2014)

Total exports

US$2.210 trillion (2013 estimate) 

Export commodities

electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits

Total imports

US$1.950 trillion (2013 estimate) 

Import commodities

electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans

Exports - major partners

Hong Kong 17.4%, US 16.7%, Japan 6.8%, South Korea 4.1% (2013 est.)

Imports - major partners

South Korea 9.4%, Japan 8.3%, Taiwan 8%, United States 7.8%, Australia 5%, Germany 4.8% (2013 est.)

FDI inflows
2011 2012 2013
US$ 123,985 million US$ 121,080 million US$ 123,911 million
FDI outflows
2011 2012 2013  
US$ 74,654 million US$ 87,804 million US$ 101,000 million  
Value of cross-border M&A;, by country of purchaser
2010 2011 2012 2013
US$ 30,524 million US$ 37,111 million US$ 37,930 million US$ 50,195 million
Cross-border M&A; deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2012 (Acquiring company, Acquired company, Country of the acquired company, Value of the deal)

Sinopec Group, Galp Energia SGPS SA, Portugal, 4.8; China Three Gorges Corp, EDP, Portugal, 3.5

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Cross-border M&A; deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2013 (Acquiring company, Acquired company, Country of the acquired company, Value of the deal)

China National Offshore Oil Co, Nexen Inc, Canada, 19.1; Shuanghui Intl Hldg Ltd, Smithfield Foods Inc, United States, 4.8; CNPC, Eni SpA, Italy, 4.2; Sinopec Group, Apache Corp, United States, 3.0

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Best countries for doing business World Bank/IFC Doing Business Project

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business, from 1 - 189. A high ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 96 out of 189 countries (2013)


Starting a business: 158 out of 189 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 19 out of 189 countries

Registering Property: 48 out of 189 countries

Getting credit: 73 out of 189 countries

Protecting investors: 98 out of 189 countries

Trading across border: 74 out of 189 countries

Paying Taxes: 120 out of 189 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 185 out of 189 countries

Getting Electricity: 119 out of 189 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 78 out of 18 countries


Global competitiveness ranking(ranking by country on a basis of 144, the first is the best)





Index of Economic FreedomWSJ and Heritage Foundation

Ranking: 137 Score: 52.5 (Mostly Unfree) (2014)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed )

Time zone

UTC+8 (one time zone)

Total area

9,596,960 sq km




Renminbi yuan (RMB)

Government type

Communist state


Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)


Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < .1%, Jewish < .1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2014* 2019**
1.143 billion 1.267 billion 1.341 billion 1.368 billion 1.402 billion

*Estimate    **Forecast

Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2013
16% 19% 36% 53%
Population median age

336.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

0.44% (2014 est.)

Life expectancy

75.15 years (2014 estimate)

Adult literacy

95.1% (2010 estimate)

% of population living on less than $2 a day

18.6% (2011)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

42.1 (2010)
(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 7
Civil Liberties: 6 (2014)

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free)

Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 19.3%   Mobile 88.7% (2013)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

45.80% (2013)

Cost of living - Mercer index(ranking by city on a basis of 214; the 1st is the most expensive and the 214th is the least expensive)

Beijing 11th (2014)

CO2 emissions(Metric tons of CO2 per capita)

6.2 (2010)

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