Source
Central bank

Deutsche Bundesbank

International Reserves

USD 64.7 billion (2016)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved January 2017

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 3,618.6 billion (2017, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 4,122.4 billion (2017, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
3.9% 3.4% 0.8% -5.6% 4% 3.7% 0.7%
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*    
0.6% 1.6% 1.5% 1.8% 1.4%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 43,686.4 (2017, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 49,768.4 (2017, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2017*
6.54% 5.96% 4.82% 3.63% 3.3%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 0.6% 
  • industry: 30.3% 
  • services: 69.1%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

2.9% (2014)

OECD, data retrieved January 2017

Inflation
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
1.6% 0.8% 0.1% 0.4% 1.5%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
5.2% 5.0% 4.6% 4.3% 4.5%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

9.7% (Total, 2015)

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
77.1% 74.5% 71% 68.2% 65.9%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
-0.2% 0.3% 0.7% 0.1% 0.1%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AAA

Moody's: Aaa

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated January 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2013 2014 2015
USD 1936.1 billion USD 1738.5 billion USD 1715.8 billion
Largest companies

Allianz, Volkswagen Group, Daimler, BMW Group, Siemens, Deutsche Telekom, BASF, Bayer, Munich Re, SAP, Continental, Deutsche Post, Fresenius, Henkel, Linde, Merck, Commerzbank, Talanx, Deutsche Bank, Deutsche Lufthansa, HeidelbergCement, E.ON, Evonik, Adidas, ThyssenKrupp Group, Porsche Automobil Holding, Deutsche Boerse, RWE Group, Metro Group, Schaeffler, Deutsche Annington Immobilien, EnBW-Energie Baden, Beiersdorf, Infineon Technologies, TUI, Deutsche Wohnen, W&W-Wüstenrot, Brenntag, Aareal Bank, GEA Group, OSRAM Licht, Nürnberger, ProSiebenSat1 Media, Deutsche Pfandbriefbank, United Internet, BayWa, Aurubis, K+S, Aroundtown Property Holdings, DVB Bank.

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD 291.7 billion (2017 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

8.1% (2017 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

46.8% (2015)

Shares in world total merchandising export

8.1% (2015)

Shares in world total commercial services export

5.2% (2015)

Total exports

USD 1,283.0 billion (2016 estimate)

Export commodities

Motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products

Total imports

USD 987.6 billion (2016 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products

Exports - major partners

US 9.6%, France 8.6%, UK 7.5%, Netherlands 6.6%, China 6%, Italy 4.9%, Austria 4.8%, Poland 4.4%, Switzerland 4.2% (2015)

Imports - major partners

Netherlands 13.7%, France 7.6%, China 7.3%, Belgium 6%, Italy 5.2%, Poland 5%, US 4.7%, Czech Republic 4.5%, UK 4.2%, Austria 4.2%, Switzerland 4.2% (2015)

FDI inflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 11,671 million USD 880 million USD 31,719 million
FDI outflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 40,362 million USD 106,246 million USD 94,313 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2012 2013 2014 2015
USD 15674.2 million USD 6673.7 million USD 44135.7 million USD 46668.9 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

Bayer AG, Merck & Co Inc-Consumer Care Business, United States, USD 14.2 billion / Telefonica Deutschland Holding AG, E-Plus Mobilfunk GmbH & Co KG, Germany, USD 11.2 billion / Volkswagen AG, Scania AB, Sweden, USD 9.1 billion / Kronen Tausend985 GmbH, Sky Deutschland AG, Germany, USD 4.9 billion / Dragonfly GmbH & Co KgaA, Celesio AG, Germany, USD 4.8 billion / TUI AG, TUI Travel PLC, United Kingdom, USD 4.6 billion

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

Merck KGaA, Sigma-Aldrich Corp, United States, USD 16.9 billion / ZF Friedrichshafen AG, TRW Automotive Holdings Corp, United States, USD 12.5 billion / Deutsche Annington Immobilien SE, Gagfah SA, Luxembourg, USD 10.4 billion / Siemens AG, Dresser-Ran

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 17 out of 190 countries (2016)

Subcategories:

Starting a business: 114 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 17 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 79 out of 190 countries

Getting credit: 32 out of 190 countries

Protecting investors: 53 out of 190 countries

Trading across border: 38 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 48 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 12 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 5 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 3 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

5 out of 138 countries

(2016-2017)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 17 / Score: 74.37 (Mostly free) (2017)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+1

Total area

357,022 sq km

Capital

Berlin 

Currency

Euros (EUR) 

Government type

Federal parliamentary republic

Languages

German (official)

Note: Danish, Frisian, Sorbian, and Romany are official minority languages; Low German, Danish, North Frisian, Sater Frisian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, and Romany are recognized as regional languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

Religions

Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2016* 2021*
79.246 million 82.26 million 81.752 million 82.571 million 83.276 million

*Estimate 

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2015
71% 73% 73% 75%
Population median age

46.8 years (2016 estimate)

Population growth rate

-0.16% (2016 estimate)

Life expectancy

80.7 years (2016 estimate)

Literacy

N/A

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

N/A

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

30.1 (2011)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2017)                         

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 54.93%   Mobile 116.71% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

87.59% (2015)

Mercer Cost of living index

Munich: 77th 
Frankfurt: 88th
Berlin: 100th
Dusseldorf: 107th
Hamburg: 113th
Stuttgart: 129th
Nurnberg: 160th
Leipzig: 165th

(2016)

CO2 emissions

9.2 (2013)

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