Source
Central bank

National Bank of Romania

International Reserves

USD 36.3 billion (2016)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved January 2017

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 197.0 billion (2017, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 467.4 billion (2017, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
8.1% 6.9% 8.5% -7.1% -0.8% 1.1% 0.6%
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*    
3.5% 3% 3.8% 5% 3.8%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 9,992.5 (2017, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 23,709.4 (2017, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2017*
0.83% 0.65% 0.37% 0.38% 0.4%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 3.3% 
  • industry: 35.4% 
  • services: 61.3%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

0.4% (2014)

OECD, data retrieved January 2017

Inflation
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
4.0% 1.1% -0.6% -1.5% 1.7%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
7.1% 6.8% 6.8% 6.4% 6.2%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

N/A

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
38.8% 40.5% 39.3% 39.7% 40.3%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
-2.5% -1.9% -1.5% -2.8% -2.8%

*Estimate   

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: BBB-

Moody's: Baa3

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated as of January 24th 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2013 2014 2015
N/A N/A N/A
Largest companies

Banca Transilvania

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -5.5 billion (2017 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-2.8% (2017 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

41.1% (2015)

Shares in world total merchandising export

0.4% (2015)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.4% (2015)

Total exports

USD 56.0 billion (2016 estimate)

Export commodities

Machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials

Total imports

USD 66.5 billion (2016 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials

Exports - major partners

Germany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)

Imports - major partners

Germany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)

FDI inflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 3,601 million USD 3,211 million USD 3,389 million
FDI outflows
2013 2014 2015
USD -281 million USD -373 million USD 310 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2012 2013 2014 2015
N/A N/A N/A N/A
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 36 out of 190 countries (2017)

Subcategories:

Starting a business: 62 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 26 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 57 out of 190 countries

Getting Credit: 7 out of 190 countries

Protecting Minority Investors: 53 out of 190 countries

Trading Across Borders: 1 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 50 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 95 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 134 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 49 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

62 out of 138 countries

(2016-2017)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 61 / Score: 65.64 (Moderately free) (2016)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+2

Total area

238,391 sq km

Capital

Bucharest 

Currency

Lei (RON) 

Government type

Semi-presidential republic

Languages

Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

Religions

Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2016* 2021*
23.459 million 22.435 million 20.295 million 19.76 million 19.533 million

*Estimate

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2015
34% 46% 53% 55%
Population median age

40.7 years (2016 estimate)

Population growth rate

-0.32% (2016 estimate)

Life expectancy

75.1 years (2016 estimate)

Literacy

Total population: 98.8%
Male: 99.1%
Female: 98.5%  (2015 est.)

(age 15 and over can read and write)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

0.7% (2013)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

27.5 (2013)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 2
Civil Liberties: 2 (2017)                         

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 19.79%   Mobile 107.14% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

55.76% (2015)

Mercer Cost of living index

Bucharest: 172nd (2016)

CO2 emissions

3.5 (2013)

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