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Central Bank of the Eurosystem  

European Central Bank (2009)

International Reserves

US$816.040 billion (IMF, 2014)

Countries that are part of the Eurosystem (Countries that use the euro)

Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain

The micro-states of Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City also use the euro, on the basis of a formal arrangement with the European Community. Andorra, Montenegro and Kosovo likewise use the euro, but without a formal arrangement.

Gross Domestic Product at market prices

European Union
2014: US$18,451 billion (estimate)

Euro area
2014: US$13,416 billion (estimate)


Euro area
2011: 9,298,403 millions of euro (estimate)
2012: 9,269,467 millions of euro (forecast)

GDP PPP (Purchasing Power Parity)

European Union
2014: 16,773 billion current International Dollars (estimate)

Euro area
2014: 11,668.7 billion current International Dollars (estimate)

Real GDP growth
  2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014*


0.6% -4.4% 2.0% 1.7% -0.3% 0.2% 1.6%
Euro area 3.0% 0.4% -4.4% 2.0% 1.6% -0.7% -0.5% 1.2%
GDP per capita PPP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Euro area
2014: 34,849.7 current International Dollars (estimate)

GDP - composition by sector


Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (% of GDP)

EU-27: 2% (2010 Eurostat estimate)
Euro area: 2.06% (2010 Eurostat estimate)

  2012 2013 2014*
European Union 2.3% 0.9% 1.3%
Euro area 2.5% 1.3% 0.9%


Unemployment rate, Euro area




11.4% 12.1% 11.9%


Gross household saving rate (%)

European Union: N/A

Euro area: 7.9% (2014)


General government balance (% of GDP)
  2011 2012



European Union -4.4% -4.2% -3.3% -2.9%
Euro area -4.2% -3.7% -3.0% -2.6%


General government debt(% of GDP)
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014*
EU 80.0% 82.6% 86.6% 88.7% 89.0%
Euro area 85.7% 88.1% 92.8% 95.2% 95.6%


Largest companies in Europe

HSBC Holdings, Royal Dutch Shell, BP, ING Group, Royal Bank of Scotland, BNP Paribas, Allianz, Total, AXA Group, Banco Santander, Barclays, EDF Group, E.ON, ENI, Deutsche Bank, UniCredit Group, Telefónica, Volkswagen Group, ArcelorMittal, Daimler, BBVA-Banco Bilbao Vizcaya, Credit Suisse Group, HBOS, Crédit Agricole, Nestlé, Fortis, France Telecom, Siemens, Lloyds TSB Group, StatoilHydro, Generali Group, Suez Group, Zurich Financial Services, Sanofi-aventis, Nokia, Munich Re, Novartis, Roche Holding, Rio Tinto, GlaxoSmithKline

FT Top 50 Banks in the World by market value 2009

HSBC, Banco Santander, BNP Paribas, Credit Suisse, UBS, Intesa San Paolo, BBV Argentaria, Credit Agricole, Standard Chartered, Deutsche Bank, Societe Generale, Nordea Bank, Unicredit, Royal Bank of Scotland

Current Account Balance (% GDP)

EU-27 - 0.7% (2010)

Euro area: - 0.1% (2010)

Share of world market for traded goods

Export 16% (2010)
Import: 17.2% (2010)
(share of world total excluding intra-EU trade)

Share of world total merchandising export

EU-27 15.06% (2010)

Share of world total commercial services export

EU-27 24.39% (2010)

Total export (trade in goods and commercial services)

EU-27 1,821,735 millions of Euro (Extra EU27): 2008

Extra EU 27 trade by product: export

Machinery and transport equipment: 649.4 millions of euros; Other manufactured goods: 354.2 millions of euros; Chemicals and related products: 253.1 millions of euros; Food, drinks and tobacco: 88.9 millions of euro (2011)

Total import (trade in goods and commercial services)

EU-27 1,987,875 millions of Euro (Extra EU27): 2008

Extra EU 27 trade by product: import

Machinery and transport equipment: 440.9 millions of euros; Other manufactured goods: 399 millions of euros; Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials: 488.1 millions of euros; Chemicals and related products: 152.6 millions of euros (2011)

Export - Main trading partners of the EU-27 for merchandise trade (extra-EU-27 trade)

United States: 19.1%; Russian Federation: 8%; China (including Hong Kong): 7.6%; Switzerland: 7.5%; Turkey: 4.1%; Norway: 3.3%; Japan: 3.2% (2008)

Import - Main trading partners of the EU-27 for merchandise trade(extra-EU-27 trade)

China (including Hong Kong) 16.6%; United States 12%; Russian Federation 11.2%; Norway 6.1%; Switzerland 5.1%; Japan 4.8% (2008)

Foreign direct investment inflows (from extra EU countries)

EU-27: 172,667 millions euro (2008)

Foreign direct investment outflows (toward extra EU countries)

EU-27: 354,387 millions euro (2008)

Time zone

Western European Time (UTC+0)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Eastern European Time (UTC+3)

Member states European Union

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom (2010)

Candidate countries European Union

Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey (2010)

Political centres European Union

Brussels, Luxembourg, Strasbourg (2009)


The European Union has 23 official languages. They are: Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish.
However, there are fewer official languages than Member States, as some share common languages. (2009)


Roman Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish (2009)

Total population

EU-27: 501,259,840 (2010, forecast)
Euro area: 329,671,838 (2010, forecast)

Population density (inhabitants per km²)

EU-27 114.3 (2005)
EU-15 120.9 (2006)

Population age structure

0-14 years: 15.44%
15-64 years: 67.22%
65 years and over: 17.34%

Population growth rate

European Union: 0.108 % (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth by gender

Euro area
Males 77.32 (2006)
Females 83.27 (2006)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini Index)

European Union: 31 in 2007 (0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Computer use (Individuals who used a computer within the last year)

EU-27: 71% (2009)

% of households who have internet access at home

EU-27: 65%
Euro area: 66% (2009)

% of households with a broadband connection

EU-27: 56%
Euro area: 56% (2009)

Cost of living Index

Copenhagen: 17th

London: 18th

Paris: 27th

Rome: 34th

Vienna: 36th

Stockholm: 39th

Helsinki: 42nd

Prague: 47th

Amsterdam: 50th

Athens: 53rd

Bratislava: 57th

Dublin: 58th

Madrid: 60th

Brussels: 62nd

Luxembourg: 72nd

Berlin: 84th

Lisbon: 86th

Riga: 88th

Zagreb: 100th

Warsaw: 102nd

Budapest: 113th

Tallinn: 124th

Vilnius: 133rd

Ljubljana: 140th

Bucharest: 152nd

Sofia: 169th (2011)