Public debt is the total amount of money owed by the government to creditors. It is usually presented as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Because of the global financial crisis and the euro zone sovereign debt crisis, Advanced Economies have followed a particularly dangerous trajectory of indebtedness in recent years.

Project Coordinator: S.J. Yun

According to the IMF, outside of the European Union, a number of countries face heavy debt burden in the near future, such as Bhutan (nearly 120% of GDP in 2015), Eritrea (127%), Jamaica (131.5%), Japan (245%) and Lebanon (147%).

IMF Survey
*Values expressed in percentage

Country
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Albania 58.8 60.4 62.9 70.5 72.1 71.6
Algeria 11.7 9.9 10.0 9.3 9.9 8.1
Angola 39.8 32.2 29.6 34.6 38.4 37.8
Antigua and Barbuda 90.8 92.4 87.1 94.3 97.2 92.9
Argentina 39.2 35.9 37.6 41.0 48.9 54.2
Armenia 33.7 35.7 38.9 41.4 41.5 42.5
Australia 20.5 24.3 27.1 28.6 30.6 30.7
Austria 72.5 73.1 74.4 74.5 80.1 78.6
Azerbaijan 11.1 10.1 11.6 13.8 15.9 18.0
Bahrain 29.7 32.5 36.3 43.9 47.1 51.4
Bangladesh 35.3 36.1 35.1 35.2 33.9 32.9
Barbados 70.3 76.5 86.2 97.2 102.0 103.9
Belarus 39.5 45.9 38.5 37.0 35.7 35.1
Belgium 96.6 99.2 101.1 101.2 101.9 101.7
Belize 83.2 79.4 75.1 75.8 76.6 75.9
Benin 30.2 31.9 29.2 29.8 29.5 29.0
Bhutan 57.5 68.6 72.2 89.2 108.1 117.7
Bolivia 38.5 34.7 33.4 32.6 29.8 27.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina 39.1 40.8 44.6 42.5 46.1 46.0
Botswana 19.5 20.1 19.2 16.9 14.8 13.0
Brazil 65.0 64.7 68.2 66.2 65.8 65.6
Brunei Darussalam 1.2 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.3
Bulgaria 14.9 15.4 17.5 16.4 25.2 25.1
Burkina Faso 29.3 30.6 28.7 29.2 31.2 31.6
Burundi 40.3 36.4 35.4 31.8 30.0 28.6
Cabo Verde 73.0 77.8 91.3 99.4 110.4 116.0
Cambodia 29.1 28.5 28.7 28.4 28.9 28.9
Cameroon 11.5 13.2 15.4 19.0 24.4 28.6
Canada 84.6 85.9 88.1 88.8 88.1 86.8
Central African Republic 32.3 32.6 30.5 50.9 45.7 47.2
Chad 25.6 29.1 28.5 31.0 31.9 28.0
Chile 8.6 11.1 12.0 12.8 13.9 14.6
China 36.6 36.5 37.4 39.4 40.7 41.8
Colombia 37.0 35.7 32.0 35.8 34.0 33.1
Comoros 50.3 46.1 42.5 18.2 18.6 18.3
Costa Rica 29.1 30.6 35.1 36.0 38.7 42.3
Croatia 42.6 47.4 54.2 60.2 66.3 68.5
CÙte d'Ivoire 63.0 93.3 44.8 39.9 36.5 34.3
Cyprus 61.3 71.5 86.6 111.5 117.4 126.0
Czech Republic 38.4 41.4 46.2 46.0 44.4 44.4
Democratic Republic of the Congo 27.2 23.0 19.9 20.0 20.7 21.7
Denmark 42.8 46.4 45.4 44.5 45.1 46.6
Djibouti 50.6 45.2 43.3 34.7 41.8 48.5
Dominica 68.8 69.7 73.3 75.1 75.6 75.7
Dominican Republic 23.8 25.1 29.5 33.5 35.5 36.9
Ecuador 19.2 18.3 21.3 24.4 27.0 30.0
Egypt 73.2 76.6 78.9 89.2 93.8 94.5
El Salvador 49.7 50.0 55.2 55.5 57.7 59.9
Equatorial Guinea 11.2 7.9 10.2 9.0 7.0 6.0
Eritrea 143.8 133.0 125.8 126.0 124.9 126.6
Estonia 6.5 6.1 9.7 9.8 10.2 10.4
Ethiopia 27.9 26.2 21.2 21.9 22.8 23.4
Fiji 56.2 54.5 53.3 51.4 50.1 49.0
Finland 46.6 47.3 51.8 54.7 57.9 59.3
France 80.8 84.4 88.7 91.8 95.2 97.7
FYR Macedonia 24.5 27.9 33.4 35.9 36.3 37.5
Gabon 20.2 17.3 18.5 18.8 18.5 18.9
Georgia 39.3 33.8 32.3 32.2 33.9 33.6
Germany 82.5 80.0 81.0 78.4 75.5 72.5
Ghana 46.5 42.6 49.8 55.6 65.3 71.1
Greece 148.3 170.3 157.2 175.1 174.2 171.0
Grenada 97.6 100.9 103.1 109.8 111.3 110.2
Guatemala 24.1 23.7 24.3 24.6 24.8 25.3
Guinea 99.6 77.8 35.4 39.5 36.5 31.4
Guinea-Bissau 52.9 57.3 69.7 72.5 72.1 67.6
Guyana 65.2 65.2 62.6 56.9 57.8 58.9
Haiti 17.5 12.0 16.4 21.3 24.5 29.9
Honduras 29.8 32.5 34.8 43.5 46.6 49.4
Hong Kong SAR 5.5 6.1 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.3
Hungary 82.1 82.1 79.8 79.3 79.1 79.2
Iceland 93.0 99.3 96.9 89.9 86.4 88.2
India 67.5 66.8 66.6 61.5 60.5 59.5
Indonesia 26.1 24.4 24.0 26.1 26.2 26.0
Iraq 51.0 39.1 33.5 31.3 30.7 29.8
Ireland 87.4 98.9 111.4 116.1 112.4 111.7
Islamic Republic of Iran 13.5 9.2 11.8 11.3 11.2 11.1
Israel 71.1 69.7 68.3 67.6 67.4 67.1
Italy 119.3 120.7 127.0 132.5 136.7 136.4
Jamaica 143.4 141.7 146.5 141.6 139.9 131.5
Japan 216.0 229.8 237.3 243.2 245.1 245.5
Jordan 67.1 70.7 80.2 85.8 90.0 91.1
Kazakhstan 10.7 10.4 12.4 12.9 13.7 14.5
Kenya 44.2 42.0 40.8 41.0 44.7 46.6
Kiribati 32.1 29.2 11.6 13.3 15.9 19.9
Korea 31.0 31.7 32.3 33.9 35.4 36.2
Kuwait 11.3 8.5 6.8 6.2 5.9 5.7
Kyrgyz Republic 59.7 49.4 49.0 47.7 51.1 50.0
Lao P.D.R. 62.1 56.9 62.2 61.3 61.2 60.1
Latvia 39.7 37.5 36.4 35.0 36.0 35.3
Lebanon 138.4 133.9 134.3 141.0 144.9 147.4
Lesotho 34.9 37.6 39.7 42.7 41.1 40.1
Liberia 35.1 31.0 28.1 29.8 34.7 40.5
Libya 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lithuania 38.3 39.2 41.0 39.3 40.0 39.5
Luxembourg 19.5 18.7 21.7 23.1 24.2 26.5
Madagascar 32.0 32.6 33.8 34.2 34.0 34.0
Malawi 37.4 41.8 53.4 72.9 57.9 48.6
Malaysia 53.5 54.2 56.2 57.7 56.6 54.9
Maldives 65.2 68.1 75.4 83.5 98.3 108.9
Mali 28.7 29.1 29.9 32.1 32.4 33.8
Malta 65.9 68.8 70.5 72.2 71.9 71.3
Marshall Islands 64.7 60.1 58.2 55.0 52.8 50.2
Mauritania 89.6 81.3 89.5 87.6 70.0 69.7
Mauritius 52.0 52.1 51.5 53.8 53.5 53.6
Mexico 42.2 43.2 43.2 46.4 48.0 49.0
Micronesia 28.6 28.1 26.8 26.3 25.8 25.4
Moldova 26.9 24.1 24.5 23.8 25.4 28.0
Montenegro 40.9 46.0 54.0 58.0 60.3 62.9
Morocco 51.3 54.4 60.4 64.6 66.0 66.2
Mozambique 45.8 39.6 42.7 47.8 51.4 53.6
Myanmar 49.6 49.4 48.0 39.8 39.5 39.8
Namibia 15.7 22.9 24.4 25.5 27.6 29.1
Nepal 35.4 33.2 34.3 31.2 26.3 24.3
Netherlands 59.0 61.3 66.5 68.6 69.4 69.6
New Zealand 31.9 37.0 37.5 36.1 34.9 34.5
Nicaragua 33.7 32.7 31.5 30.9 29.9 29.0
Niger 23.9 27.1 27.4 27.0 41.8 44.2
Nigeria 9.6 10.2 10.4 10.4 10.6 11.1
Norway 43.3 29.0 29.5 29.5 29.5 29.5
Oman 5.7 5.6 6.2 7.3 8.1 9.0
Pakistan 61.5 59.5 64.0 64.3 63.7 63.1
Panama 44.1 43.8 42.6 41.6 42.8 42.5
Papua New Guinea 25.3 22.3 26.8 34.8 38.3 32.2
Paraguay 13.5 11.5 14.1 14.2 18.5 17.7
Peru 25.2 23.2 21.2 20.0 19.3 19.2
Philippines 43.5 41.4 40.6 39.1 36.3 33.9
Poland 54.9 56.2 55.6 57.1 49.4 49.0
Portugal 94.0 108.2 124.1 128.9 131.3 128.7
Qatar 29.3 32.7 35.8 34.3 25.5 24.8
Republic of Congo 22.9 33.1 34.1 38.2 38.2 35.5
Romania 31.1 34.3 38.2 39.4 39.9 39.6
Russia 11.3 11.6 12.7 13.9 15.7 16.5
Rwanda 23.1 23.7 23.5 28.7 29.1 29.7
S„o TomÈ and PrÌncipe 78.1 73.3 83.8 74.3 71.6 71.7
Saudi Arabia 8.4 5.4 3.6 2.7 2.6 2.5
Senegal 35.5 40.7 43.4 46.8 50.3 51.0
Serbia 46.5 49.5 62.4 65.8 75.6 79.6
Seychelles 81.9 73.3 77.5 65.3 64.3 61.0
Sierra Leone 46.8 44.9 36.9 30.5 33.0 33.2
Singapore 97.4 101.8 106.6 103.5 103.1 101.0
Slovak Republic 41.0 43.6 52.7 55.4 55.7 55.7
Slovenia 37.9 46.2 53.3 70.0 77.4 75.6
Solomon Islands 27.8 21.6 17.7 14.8 14.6 15.0
South Africa 35.3 38.8 42.1 45.2 47.9 50.8
Spain 61.7 70.5 85.9 93.9 98.6 101.1
Sri Lanka 81.9 78.5 79.2 78.3 76.6 74.1
St. Kitts and Nevis 159.3 151.7 137.3 103.1 86.2 80.1
St. Lucia 62.6 67.0 74.1 79.6 84.6 89.0
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 65.4 67.7 72.2 74.0 78.1 80.3
Sudan 73.1 70.5 94.3 90.3 90.8 87.6
Suriname 18.5 20.4 22.2 29.8 33.5 36.1
Swaziland 15.9 16.6 17.4 17.8 17.2 19.4
Sweden 39.4 38.7 38.3 40.5 42.2 41.3
Switzerland 48.9 49.1 49.2 48.3 47.2 46.4
Syria 30.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Taiwan 38.3 40.0 41.0 41.1 40.0 38.9
Tajikistan 36.3 35.4 32.3 29.2 28.8 28.4
Tanzania 37.1 40.2 40.4 40.5 42.1 42.8
Thailand 42.6 41.7 45.4 45.9 47.9 48.4
The Bahamas 43.2 44.9 48.4 56.3 60.1 61.6
The Gambia 69.6 77.3 77.2 81.9 80.2 75.2
Togo 47.3 44.6 45.1 44.6 45.0 44.5
Trinidad and Tobago 35.8 33.4 37.2 30.7 30.5 33.9
Tunisia 40.7 44.5 44.5 44.8 50.5 54.1
Turkey 42.3 39.1 36.2 36.3 33.6 33.1
Turkmenistan 4.1 10.0 18.1 20.5 15.8 14.3
Tuvalu 55.6 45.3 43.0 41.1 56.9 48.6
Uganda 26.8 29.3 31.1 33.3 35.4 38.7
Ukraine 40.5 36.8 37.4 40.9 67.6 73.4
United Arab Emirates 22.2 17.6 17.1 11.7 11.4 11.4
United Kingdom 78.5 84.3 89.1 90.6 92.0 93.1
United States 94.8 99.0 102.5 104.2 105.6 105.1
Uruguay 61.6 59.0 59.5 62.1 66.4 67.3
Uzbekistan 10.0 9.1 8.6 8.5 8.6 8.6
Vanuatu 19.4 20.9 21.0 20.5 22.5 25.0
Venezuela 36.3 43.3 46.0 52.1 46.2 41.3
Vietnam 48.4 46.7 48.5 51.6 54.8 57.1
Yemen 42.4 45.7 47.3 48.2 48.2 47.4
Zambia 18.9 20.6 25.5 28.7 32.4 31.4
Zimbabwe 63.2 51.8 56.7 55.2 58.5 58.5