Source
Central bank

Reserve Bank of Australia

International Reserves

USD 53.9 billion (2018)

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 1,418.3 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 1,318.2 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
4.4% 2.7% 1.9% 2.4% 2.8% 3.9% 2.1%
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*    
2.6% 2.5% 2.8% 2.4% 2.8%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 56,351.6 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 52,373.5 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
0.96% (2019, estimate)
 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 2.6% 
  • industry: 24% 
  • services: 66.6%

(2018 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

1.9% (2015)

Inflation
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
1.5% 1.3% 2% 2% 1.6%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
6.1% 5.7% 5.6% 5.3% 5.1%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

3.5% (2017)

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
37.7% 40.5% 41.1% 41.4% 41.8%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-2.8% -2.5% -1.7% -0.8% -0.7%

*Estimate  

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AAA

Moody's: Aaa

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated January 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
USD 1,268.5 billion USD 1,508.5 billion USD 1,262.8 billion
Largest companies

Bendigo & Adelaide Bank, Sydney Airport, Lendlease Group, Bank of Queensland, Ramsay Health Care, Commonwealth Bank, Westpac Banking Group, BHP Group, ANZ, NAB - National Australia Bank, Macquarie Group, Telstra, Woolworths, Wesfarmers, Suncorp Group, CSL, Woodside Petroleum, QBE Insurance Group, Scentre Group, South32, Fortescue Metals Group, Origin Energy, Insurance Australia Group, AGL Energy, Amcor, Goodman Group, Qantas Airways, Transurban Group, Bluescope Steel, Santos, Brambles, Dexus, AMP, Caltex Australia, GPT Group, Viva Energy Group, Mirvac Group

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -29.6 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-2.1 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

21.7% (2018)

Shares in world total merchandising export

1.32% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

1.18% (2018)

Total exports

USD 327.1 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Iron ore, coal, gold, natural gas, beef, aluminum ores and conc, wheat, meat (excluding beef), wool, alumina, alcohol

Total imports

USD 308.8 billion (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Motor vehicles, refined petroleum, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude petroleum, medicaments, goods vehicles, gold, computers

Exports - major partners

China 33.5%, Japan 14.6%, South Korea 6.6%, India 5%, Hong Kong 4% (2017)

Imports - major partners

China 22.9%, US 10.8%, Japan 7.5%, Thailand 5.1%, Germany 4.9%, South Korea 4.5% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 45,522 million USD 42,294 million USD 60,438 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 328 million USD 3,320 million USD 3,635 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD 11,806 million USD 9,489 million USD 12,051 million USD -627 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

Industry Funds Management Pty Ltd, ITR Concession Co LLC, United States, USD 5.7 billion / APA Group, QCLNG Pipeline Pty Ltd, Australia, USD 4.6 billion

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

14 out of 190 countries

Subcategories:
Starting a Business: 7 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 11 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 62 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 42 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 4 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 57 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 28 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 106 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 6 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 20 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

16 out of 141 countries

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 5 / Score: 80.9 (Free)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+1

Total area

7,741,220 sq km

Capital

Canberra

Currency

Australian dollars (AUD)

Government type

Federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Languages

English 72.7%, Mandarin 2.5%, Arabic 1.4%, Cantonese 1.2%, Vietnamese 1.2%, Italian 1.2%, Greek 1%, other 14.8%, unspecified 6.5% (2016 est.)

Religions

Protestant 23.1% (Anglican 13.3%, Uniting Church 3.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 2.3%, Baptist 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.1%, Lutheran .7%, other Protestant .5%), Roman Catholic 22.6%, other Christian 4.2%, Muslim 2.6%, Buddhist 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3% (Eastern Orthodox)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020*
17.17 million 19.141 million 22.17 million 23.99 million 25.98 million

*Estimate

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2018
81.5% 85.6% 84.2% 86%
Population median age

38.8 years

Population growth rate

1.01% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

82.4 years (2018 estimate)

Literacy

N/A

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

N/A

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

35.8 (last available estimate, 2014)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Free
Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2019)
(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 32.5% Mobile: 113.6% (2018) 
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

86.55 % (2017)

Mercer Cost of living index

Sydney: 50th
Melbourne: 79th
Perth: 87th
Canberra: 96th
Brisbane: 103rd
Adelaide: 109th

(2019)

CO2 emissions

15.39 metric tons per capita (2014)

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