Central bank

People's Bank of China

International Reserves

USD 3,168.0 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 13,407.4 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 25,270.1 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
14.2% 9.6% 9.2% 10.6% 9.5% 7.9% 7.8%
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018*    
7.3% 6.9% 6.7% 6.8% 6.6%    


GDP per capita - current prices

USD 9,608.4 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 18,109.8 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
19.2% (2019, estimate)
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 7.2% 
  • industry: 40.7% 
  • services: 52.2%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

2.1% (2017)

2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
1.4% 2% 1.6% 2.1% 2.3%


Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
4.1% 4% 3.9% 3.8% 3.8%


Household saving rates

36.1% (2016)


Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
41.1% 44.2% 46.8% 50.6% 55.6%


Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-2.8% -3.7% -3.9% -4.8% -6.1%


Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: A+

Moody's: A1

Standard & Poor's / Moody's 

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
USD 7,320.7 billion USD 8,711.3 billion USD 6,324.9 billion
Largest companies

Bank of Ningbo, Weichai Power, China Fortune Land Development, Qingdao Haier, Bank of Nanjing, China National Building, Sinopharm Group,, Dongfeng Motor Group, Daqin Railway, BOE Technology Group, CNPC Capital, Guangzhou Automobile Group, CGN Power, Baoshan Iron & Steel, Bank of Beijing, CRRC, Baidu, Sunac China Holdings, Greenland Holdings Group, New China Life Insurance, Longfor Group Holdings, Bank Of Shanghai, China Merchants Shekou Industrial Zone Holdings, Beijing Shougang, Xinyu Iron & Steel, Sinotruk Hong Kong, China Communications Services, Kaisa Group Holdings, Jiangxi Bank, Zhongyuan Bank, Guangzhou Baiyunshan Pharmaceutical Holdings, Tahoe Group, Qingdao Rural Commercial Bank, Xiamen Xiangyu, China Development Bank Financial Leasing, China Merchants Expressway Network & Technology Holdings, Dali Foods Group, Financial Street Holdings, Haidilao International Holding, Fangda Carbon New Material, Hengyi Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Xinhu Zhongbao, China Eastern Airlines, Yanzhou Coal Mining, NetEase, Bank of Jinzhou, Huatai Securities, Hikvision, Shaanxi Coal Industry, Shanghai Electric Group, Shenzhen Overseas, Inner Mongolia Yili, Huishang Bank, Wanhua Chemical Group, China Coal Energy, China Everbright Bank, China Shenhua Energy, People's Insurance, China Telecom, China Communications Construction, China Railway Group, China Railway Construction, Poly Developments & Holdings Group, Midea Group, Gree Electric Appliances, Huaxia Bank, China Galaxy Securities, China International Marine, Bank of Tianjin, GD Power Development, Bank Of Guiyang, Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine, Jiangxi Copper, Bank of Changsha, Foshan Haitian Flavouring and Food, China International Capital, Bank Of Chengdu, China Longyuan Power, New Hope Liuhe, Everbright Securities, Jiangsu Zhongnan Construction Group, Liuzhou Iron & Steel, China National Chemical, Pinduoduo, Inner Mongolia Yitai Coal, Hengan International Group, Fuyao Glass Industry Group, Bank of Xi'an, China Shipbuilding Industry, BBMG, Hesteel, Yum China Holdings, Zhejiang Zheneng Electric Power, SDIC Power Holdings, Jiangsu Yanghe Brewery, Angang Steel, Harbin Bank, Rongsheng Petrochemical, CIFI Holdings Group, Guosen Securities, Hunan Valin Steel, International, HNA Technology, China International Travel Service, China Molybdenum, Yango Group, Sino-Ocean Group Holding, Huadian Power International, Maanshan Iron & Steel, AVIC Capita, Focus Media Information Technology, ICBC, China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, Ping An Insurance Group, Bank of China, PetroChina, China Merchants Bank, Sinopec, Bank of Communications, Industrial Bank, Alibaba, Postal Savings Bank Of China (PSBC), Jinke Property Group, Shanxi Taigang Stainless, Contemporary Amperex Technology, NARI Technology Development, Bank of Chongqing, Zhongsheng Group Holdings, Greentown China Holdings, Bohai Leasing, 360 Security Technology, Shanghai International Airport, Legend Holding, China Tower Corp., Haitong Securities, China Southern Airlines, Guotai Junan Securities, BYD, Huaneng Power International, China Energy Engineering, Shanghai International Port, China Reinsurance Group, Guangzhou R&F, Materials Industry Zhongda Group, Hainan Airlines, Anta Sports Products, Bank of Zhengzhou, Beijing Capital Development, Bank Of Gansu, ENN Energy Holdings, Orient Securities, Yonghui Superstores, Chongqing Rural Bank, Xiamen International Trade Group, Meituan Dianping, Agile Group Holdings, Guangzhou Rural Commercial Bank, ZTE, Wens Foodstuff Group, Bank Of Hangzhou, Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel, Sany Heavy Industry, Hengli Petrochemical, Shanghai Construction, Datang International Power, Power Construction Corporation of China, Anhui Conch Cement, Fosun International, Kweichow Moutai, Bank Of Jiangsu,, Xiaomi, China Yangtze Power, China Cinda Asset Management, Citic Securities, China Zheshang Bank, Metallurgical Corp of China, RiseSun Real Estate Development, China Hongqiao Group, Aluminum Corp of China, BAIC Motor, TCL, China Merchants Securities, Shanghai Pharmaceuticals, Shengjing Bank, China Gezhouba, Logan Property Holdings, China Grand Automotive Services, Cosco Shipping, Sansteel Minguang, Red Star Macalline Group, Founder Securities, SDIC Capital, China Zhongwang Holdings, Longi Green Energy Technology, Sinotrans Ltd., Bank of Qingdao, China Railway Signal & Communication, Muyuan Foodstuff, Bank of Jiujiang, Shanghai Ganglian E-Commerce Holdings, Unisplendour, Nanjing Iron & Steel, Ronshine China Holdings, Zhejiang Chint Electrics, China Petroleum Engineering, Want Want China, Vipshop Holdings, iQIYI, Tongling Nonferrous Metals, Jointown Pharmaceutical Group, Shanghai Pudong Development, Tencent Holdings, China State Construction Engineering, China Citic Bank, China Evergrande Group, SAIC Motor, China Life Insurance, China Minsheng Banking, China Vanke, Country Garden Holdings, China Pacific Insurance, Sunny Optical Technology Group, Sichuan Changhong Electric, AAC Technologies Holdings, Sumec Corporation, Digital China Group, AVIC International Holdings, Times Property Holdings, Luzhou Lao Jiao, Csc Financial, Luxshare Precision Industry, Zhejiang Longsheng Group, Kangmei Pharmaceutical, Chongqing Changan Auto, Tingyi Holding, Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics, Yunnan Baiyao Group, Wuliangye Yibin, Gemdale, Great Wall Motor, China Huarong Asset Management, Future Land Development Holdings, Xiamen C&D, S.F. Holding, Zijin Mining Group, China National Nuclear Power, GF Securities, Shenwan Hongyuan Group

Current account balance

USD 49.1 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

0.4 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

19.5% (2018)

Shares in world total merchandising export

12.77% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

4.59% (2018)

Total exports

USD 2,684.3 billion (2018)

Export commodities

Electrical and other machinery, including computers and telecommunications equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles

Total imports

USD 2,547.3 billion (2018 estimate)

Import commodities

Electrical and other machinery, including integrated circuits and other computer components, oil and mineral fuels; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans

Exports - major partners

US 19%, Hong Kong 12.4%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2017)

Imports - major partners

South Korea 9.7%, Japan 9.1%, US 8.5%, Germany 5.3%, Australia 5.1% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 133,710 million USD 134,063 million USD 139,043 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 196,149 million USD 158,290 million USD 129,830 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD 51,117 million USD 99,331 million USD 130,876 million USD 57,397 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014


Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015


Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business, from 1 - 189. A high ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 

31 out of 190 countries

Starting a Business: 27 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 33 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 12 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 28 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 80 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 28 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 105 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 56 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 5 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 51 out of 190 countries
World Bank - Doing Business 2019

Global competitiveness ranking

28 out of 141 countries


Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 100 / Score: 58.4 (Mostly unfree)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

Time zone


Total area

9,596,960 sq km




Renminbi yuan (RMB)

Government type

Communist party-led state


Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)Note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)


Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < 0.1%, Jewish < 0.1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2% (2010 est.)Note: officially atheist (2010 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020*
1143.33 million 1267.43 million 1340.91 million 1374.62 million 1404.46 million


Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2018
16.2% 19.4% 35.9% 59.2%
Population median age

37.7 years

Population growth rate

0.37% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

75.8 years (2018 estimate)


Total population: 96.4% 
Male: 98.2% 
Female: 94.5%
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

7% (last available estimate, 2015)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

38.6 (last available estimate, 2015)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Not Free
Political Rights: 7
Civil Liberties: 6 (2019)

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 12.8% Mobile: 115% (2018) 
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

54.3 % (2017)

Mercer Cost of living index

Shanghai: 6th
Beijing: 8th
Shenzhen: 10th
Guangzhou: 17th
Nanjing: 27th
Chengdu: 30th
Tianjin: 32nd
Qingdao: 41st
Shenyang: 45th


CO2 emissions(Metric tons of CO2 per capita)

7.54 metric tons per capita (2014)

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