Central bank

People's Bank of China

International Reserves

USD 3032.6 billion (2016)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved January 2017

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 12,361.7 billion (2017, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 23,066.1 billion (2017, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
12.7% 14.2% 9.6% 9.2% 10.6% 9.5% 7.9%
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*    
7.8% 7.3% 6.9% 6.6% 6.2%    


GDP per capita - current prices

USD 8,928.7 (2017, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 16,660.2 (2017, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2017*
2.33% 4.11% 7.43% 13.82% 18.3%


GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 8.6% 
  • industry: 40.7% 
  • services: 50.7%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

2% (2014)

OECD, data retrieved January 2017

2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
2.6% 2.0% 1.4% 2.1% 2.3%


Unemployment rate
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1% 4.1%


Household saving rates

38% (Total, 2014)


Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
36.9% 39.8% 42.9% 46.3% 49.9%


Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
-0.8% -0.9% -2.7% -3% -3.3%


Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA-

Moody's: Aa3

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated as of January 24th 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2013 2014 2015
USD 3949.1 billion USD 6004.9 billion USD 8188 billion
Largest companies

ICBC, China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, PetroChina, China Mobile, Ping An Insurance Group, Sinopec, Bank of Communications, China Merchants Bank, China Life Insurance, Shanghai Pudong Development, Industrial Bank, China Minsheng Banking, China Citic Bank, China State Construction Engineering, SAIC Motor, China Telecom, China Pacific Insurance, CNOOC, China Everbright Bank, China Communications Construction, China Railway Group, China Shenhua Energy, Alibaba, China Railway Construction, People's Insurance Company, China Vanke, Dalian Wanda Commercial Properties, Tencent Holdings, China Unicom, CRRC, Huaxia Bank, Bank of Beijing, New China Life Insurance, Citic Securities, Poly Real Estate, Greenland Holdings Group, Huaneng Power International, Haitong Securities, China Huarong Asset Management, Baidu, Evergrande Real Estate, Sinohydro Group, China Cinda Asset Management, Midea Group, Fosun International, Metallurgical Corp of China, Country Garden Holdings, GF Securities, China Reinsurance Group, Dongfeng Motor Group, Guosen Securities, Huatai Securities, China Eastern Airlines, Legend Holding, Daqin Railway, Guotai Junan Securities, China Merchants Shekou Industrial Zone Holdings, Shenwan Hongyuan Group, Bank of Nanjing, Huadian Power International, Kweichow Moutai, China Zheshang Bank, China Southern Airlines, China Yangtze Power, Gree Electric Appliances, China Merchants Securities, China Galaxy Securities, Shengjing Bank, Longfor Properties, China Energy Engineering, Bank of Ningbo, Anhui Conch Cement, GD Power Development, BYD, Baoshan Iron & Steel, Shanghai Electric Group, Orient Securities, CGN Power, Chongqing Changan Auto, Great Wall Motor,, Datang International Power, Guangdong Wens Foodstuffs Group, Sinopharm Group, China Fortune Land Development, Zhejiang Zheneng Electric Power, Chongqing Rural Bank, Lenovo Group, China Shipbuilding Industry, BOE Technology Group, Everbright Securities, Shanghai International Port, Huishang Bank, Aluminum Corp of China, Xiamen C&D, Inner Mongolia Yili, Qingdao Haier, China National Nuclear Power, Guangzhou R&F, Suning Appliance, China Coal Energy, SDIC Power Holdings, BAIC Motor, TCL Corp, Founder Securities, Gemdale, China National Building, Shanghai Pharmaceuticals, Bank of Tianjin, International, Sinotex Investment & Development, China Gezhouba, Hikvision, Guangzhou Automobile Group, Bank of Jinzhou, Netease, Harbin Bank, Shanghai Construction, Shenzhen Overseas, China Cosco Holdings, Zijin Mining Group, Wuliangye Yibin, Industrial Securities, Jiangxi Copper, China Hongqiao Group, Jiangsu Yanghe Brewery, Hebei Iron & Steel, Hainan Airlines, Bank of Chongqing, Yanzhou Coal Mining, Bank of Zhengzhou, Inner Mongolia Baotou Steel, AVIC Capita, BBMG, China International Marine, China National Chemical, Wuhan Iron & Steel, Changjiang Securities, Weichai Power, Hengan International Group, China Grand Automotive Services, China Longyuan Power, Want Want China, China Mengniu Dairy, China Communications Services, Oceanwide Holdings, Sino-Ocean Land Holdings, Zhengzhou Yutong Bus, SINOPEC Engineering (Group), Southwest Securities, BesTV New Media, Ningbo Port, Foshan Haitian Flavouring and Food Company, Kangmei Pharmaceutical, Sunac China Holdings, Shaanxi Coal Industry, Financial Street Holdings, Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine, Kaisa Group Holdings, New Hope Liuhe, AAC Technologies Holdings, China National Materials, Zhejiang Material Industrial Zhongda Yuantong Group, China Power International Development, Yunnan Baiyao Group, Dali Foods Group, Shanxi Taigang Stainless, GCL System Integration Technology, Red Star Macalline Group, Dongxing Securities, Focus Media Information Technology, Angang Steel, Youngor Group, Heilan Home, Shanghai Chengtou Holding, Tingyi Holding, Tongling Nonferrous Metals, Bank of Qingdao, Shanghai International Airport, RiseSun Real Estate Development, Xinjiang Goldwind Science & Technology, Leshi Internet Information & Technology Corp. Beijing, Shanghai Industrial Holdings, Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric, Shanghai RAAS Blood Products, Western Securities, Bohai Financial Investment Holding, Vipshop Holdings, Soochow Securities, East Money Information, Guangdong Electric Power, Wanda Cinema Line, China Great Wall Computer, Sichuan Chuantou Energy, Beijing Capital Development, Wintime Energy, Pang Da Automobile Trade, China Agri-Industries.

Current account balance

USD 200.5 billion (2017 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

1.6% (2017 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

22.1% (2015)

Shares in world total merchandising export

13.8% (2015)

Shares in world total commercial services export

6.0% (2015)

Total exports

USD 2,011.0 billion (2016 estimate)

Export commodities

Electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles, integrated circuits

Total imports

USD 1437.0 billion (2016 estimate)

Import commodities

Electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans

Exports - major partners

US 18%, Hong Kong 14.6%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2015)

Imports - major partners

South Korea 10.9%, US 9%, Japan 8.9%, Germany 5.5%, Australia 4.1% (2015)

FDI inflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 123,911 million USD 128,500 million USD 135,610 million
FDI outflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 107,844 million USD 123,120 million USD 127,560 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2012 2013 2014 2015
USD 37907.8 million USD 51525.7 million USD 40778.8 million USD 43652.9 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

Investor Group, Noble Agri Ltd, Hong Kong, China, USD 4.0 billion / Investor Group, Castle Peak Power Co Ltd, Hong Kong, China, USD 3.1 billion

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 78 out of 190 countries (2016)


Starting a business: 127 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 5 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 42 out of 190 countries

Getting credit: 62 out of 190 countries

Protecting investors: 123 out of 190 countries

Trading across border: 96 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 131 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 177 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 97 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 53 out of 190 countries

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business, from 1 - 189. A high ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 96 out of 189 countries (2013)


Starting a business: 158 out of 189 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 19 out of 189 countries

Registering Property: 48 out of 189 countries

Getting credit: 73 out of 189 countries

Protecting investors: 98 out of 189 countries

Trading across border: 74 out of 189 countries

Paying Taxes: 120 out of 189 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 185 out of 189 countries

Getting Electricity: 119 out of 189 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 78 out of 18 countries


Global competitiveness ranking

28 out of 138 countries


Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 144 / Score: 51.96 (Mostly unfree) (2017)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

Time zone

UTC+8 (one time zone)

Total area

9,596,960 sq km




Renminbi yuan (RMB)

Government type

Communist state


Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)


Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu < .1%, Jewish < .1%, other 0.7% (includes Daoist (Taoist)), unaffiliated 52.2%

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2014* 2019**
1.143 billion 1.267 billion 1.341 billion 1.368 billion 1.402 billion

*Estimate    **Forecast

Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2013
16% 19% 36% 53%
Population median age

336.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

0.44% (2014 est.)

Life expectancy

75.15 years (2014 estimate)

Adult literacy

95.1% (2010 estimate)

% of population living on less than $2 a day

18.6% (2011)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

42.1 (2010)
(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 7
Civil Liberties: 6 (2014)

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free)

Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 19.3%   Mobile 88.7% (2013)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

45.80% (2013)

Cost of living - Mercer index(ranking by city on a basis of 214; the 1st is the most expensive and the 214th is the least expensive)

Beijing 11th (2014)

CO2 emissions(Metric tons of CO2 per capita)

6.2 (2010)

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