Source
Central bank

Central Bank of Egypt

International Reserves

USD 13.4 billion (2015)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved January 2017

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

N/A

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 1,173.4 billion (2017, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
6.8% 7.1% 7.2% 4.7% 5.2% 1.8% 2.2%
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*    
2.1% 2.2% 4.2% 3.8% 4%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

N/A

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 12,597.7 (2017, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2017*
0.67% 0.82% 0.84% 0.93% 0.9%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 11.3% 
  • industry: 35.8% 
  • services: 52.9%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

N/A

 

Inflation
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
6.9% 10.1% 11.0% 10.2% 18.2%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
13.0% 13.4% 12.9% 12.7% 12.3%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

N/A

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015* 2016* 2017*
84.8% 86.3% 89% 94.6% 93.4%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015* 2016* 2017*
-13.4% -12.9% -11.5% -12% -9.7%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: B-

Moody': B3

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated January 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2013 2014 2015
USD 61.6 billion USD 70.1 billion USD 55.2 billion
Largest companies

Commercial International Bank

 
 
Source
Current account balance

N/A

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-5.2% (2017 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

13.2% (2015)

Shares in world total merchandising export

0.1% (2015)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.4% (2015)

Total exports

USD 14.7 billion (2016 estimate)

Export commodities

Crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food

Total imports

USD 50.1 billion (2016 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Exports - major partners

Saudi Arabia 9.1%, Italy 7.5%, Turkey 5.8%, UAE 5.1%, US 5.1%, UK 4.4%, India 4.1% (2015)

Imports - major partners

China 13%, Germany 7.7%, US 5.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 4.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2015)

FDI inflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 4,256 million USD 4,612 million USD 6,885 million
FDI outflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 301 million USD 253 million USD 182 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2012 2013 2014 2015
USD -15.7 million N/A USD 189.9 million USD 1672.1 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 122 out of 190 countries (2016)

Subcategories:

Starting a business: 39 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 162 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 109 out of 190 countries

Getting credit: 82 out of 190 countries

Protecting investors: 114 out of 190 countries

Trading across border: 168 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 162 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 64 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 88 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 109 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

115 out of 138 countries

(2016-2017)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 125 / Score: 55.96 (Mostly unfree) (2017)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+2

Total area

1,001,450 sq km

Capital

Cairo

Currency

Egyptian pounds (EGP)

Government type

Presidential republic

Languages

Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Religions

Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2012 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2016* 2021*
51.36 million 63.771 million 78.728 million 91.047 million 102.01 million

*Estimate 

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2015
38% 44% 43% 43%
Population median age

23.8 years (2016 estimate)

Population growth rate

2.51% (2016 estimate)

Life expectancy

72.7 years (2016 estimate)

Literacy

Total population: 73.8%
Male: 82.2%
Female: 65.4% (2015 est.)

(age 15 and over can read and write)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

N/A

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

N/A

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 6
Civil Liberties: 5 (2017)                          

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 7.36%   Mobile 110.99% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

37.82% (2015)

Mercer Cost of living index

Cairo: 91st (2016)

CO2 emissions

2.4 (2013)

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