Source
Central bank

Bank of Estonia

International Reserves

USD 0.8 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 30.3 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 45.0 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
7.7% -5.4% -14.7% 2.3% 7.6% 4.3% 1.9%
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018*    
2.9% 1.9% 3.5% 4.9% 3.9%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 22,989.9 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 34,095.8 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2019
N/A N/A 0.03% 0.03% 0.03%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 2.2% 
  • industry: 24.8%
  • services: 59.9%

(2018 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

1.3% (2017)

OECD, data retrieved October 2019

Inflation
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
0.1% 0.8% 3.7% 3.4% 2.5%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
6.2% 6.8% 5.8% 5.4% 4.7%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

7.9% (Total, 2017)

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
9.8% 9.2% 9.2% 8.3% 8.2%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
0.1% -0.3% -0.4% -0.5% -0.2%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA-

Moody': A1

Standard & Poor's / Moody's 

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
N/A N/A N/A
Largest companies

N/A

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD 0.5 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

1.7 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

75.2% (2018)

Shares in world total merchandising export

0.09% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.13% (2018)

Total exports

USD 22.7 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Machinery and electrical equipment 30%, food products and beverages 9%, mineral fuels 6%, wood and wood products 14%, articles of base metals 7%, furniture and bedding 11%, vehicles and parts 3%, chemicals 4% (2016 est.)

Total imports

USD 21.7 billion (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery and electrical equipment 28%, mineral fuels 11%, food and food products 10%, vehicles 9%, chemical products 8%, metals 8% (2015 est.)

Exports - major partners

Finland 16.2%, Sweden 13.5%, Latvia 9.2%, Russia 7.3%, Germany 6.9%, Lithuania 5.9% (2017)

Imports - major partners

Finland 14%, Germany 10.7%, Lithuania 8.9%, Sweden 8.5%, Latvia 8.2%, Poland 7.2%, Russia 6.7%, Netherlands 5.9%, China 4.7% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 1,096 million USD 1,712 million USD 1,309 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 539 million USD 744 million

USD -22 million

Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD 114 million USD -88 million USD -654 million USD 44 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

18 out of 190 countries

​Subcategories:
Starting a Business: 14 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 19 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 53 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 6 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 48 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 79 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 12 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 17 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 8 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 54 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

31 out of 141 countries

(2019)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 15 / Score: 76.6 (Mostly free)

(2019)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+2

Total area

45,228 sq km

Capital

Tallinn 

Currency

Euro (EUR) 

Government type

Parliamentary republic

Languages

Estonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1%(2011 est.)

Religions

Orthodox 16.2%, Lutheran 9.9%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7% (2011 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020*
N/A 1.4 million 1.33 million 1.32 million 1.32 million

*Estimate

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2015
57.5% 69.7% 69.4% 68.9%
Population median age

43 years 

Population growth rate

-0.6% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

77 years (2018 estimate)

Literacy

Total population: 99.8% 
Male: 99.8% 
Female: 99.8%
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

1% (last available estimate, 2015)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

32.7 (last available estimate, 2015)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Free
Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2019)
(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 26.1%

Mobile: 145.4%

(2018)

(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

89.36 % (2018)

Mercer Cost of living index

Tallinn: 140th (2019)

CO2 emissions

14.85 metric tons per capita (2014)

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