Source
Central bank

Bank of Finland

International Reserves

USD 10.3 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 275.3 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 256.5 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
5.2% 0.7% -8.3% 3% 2.6% -1.4% -0.8%
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*    
-0.6% 0.1% 2.5% 2.8% 2.4%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 49,845.0 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 46,429.5 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2019*
0.36% 0.35% 0.29% 0.24% 0.19%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 2.5% 
  • industry: 24.8% 
  • services: 59%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

2.8% (2017)

OECD, data retrieved October 2019

 

Inflation
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 1.2% 1.2%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
9.4% 8.8% 8.6% 7.4% 6.5%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

-0.8% (Total, 2018)

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
63.4% 63% 61.3% 59.3% 58.9%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-2.8% -1.7% -0.8% -0.7% -0.7%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA+

Moody's: Aa1

Standard & Poor's / Moody's

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
N/A N/A N/A
Largest companies

Sampo, Nokia, UPM-Kymmene, Neste, Fortum, Kone, Stora Enso, Wärtsilä, Kesko

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -4.4 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-1.6 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

39.2% (2018)

Shares in world total merchandising export

0.39% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.56% (2018)

Total exports

USD 107.3 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber

Total imports

USD 108.8 billion (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Exports - major partners

Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.8%, China 5.7%, Russia 5.7%, UK 4.5% (2017)

Imports - major partners

Germany 17.7%, Sweden 15.8%, Russia 13.1%, Netherlands 8.7% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 9,250 million USD -610 million USD 1,225 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 26,080 million USD -320 million USD 10,961 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD -7,764 million USD 15,127 million USD 1,488 million USD 6,498 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

20 out of 190 countries

​Subcategories:
Starting a Business: 31 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 42 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 24 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 34 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 80 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 61 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 10 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 37 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 45 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 1 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

11 out of 141 countries

(2019)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 20 / Score: 74.9 (Mostly free) (2019)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+2

Total area

338,145 sq km

Capital

Helsinki 

Currency

Euros (EUR) 

Government type

Parliamentary republic

Languages

Finnish (official) 87.6%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.4%, other 5.8% (2018 est.)

Religions

Lutheran 69.8%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2018 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020*
4.97 million 5.17 million 5.35 million 5.47 million 5.53 million

*Estimate

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2018
55.3% 71.7% 82.2% 85.4%
Population median age

42.6 years 

Population growth rate

0.33% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

81.1 years (2018 estimate)

Literacy

N/A

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

0% (last available estimate, 2015)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

27.1 (last available estimate, 2015)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Free
Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2019)
(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 5.8%

Mobile: 132.2%

(2018)

(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

88.89 % (2018)

Mercer Cost of living index

Helsinki: 65th (2019)

CO2 emissions

8.66 metric tons per capita (2014)

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