Source
Central bank

Deutsche Bundesbank

International Reserves

USD 198.2 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 4,000.4 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 4,356.4 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
3.4% 0.8% -5.6% 3.9% 3.7% 0.7% 0.6%
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018*    
2.2% 1.5% 2.2% 2.5% 1.5%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 48,264.0 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 52,558.7 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2019*
6.54% 5.96% 4.82% 3.63% 3.1%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 0.7% 
  • industry: 28% 
  • services: 61.5%

(2018 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

3% (2017)

OECD, data retrieved October 2019

Inflation
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
0.7% 0.4% 1.7% 1.9% 1.5%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
4.6% 4.2% 3.8% 3.4% 3.2%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

9.9% (2017)

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
72% 69.1% 65.2% 61.7% 58.6%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
0.9% 1.2% 1.2% 1.9% 1.1%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AAA

Moody's: Aaa

Standard & Poor's / Moody's 

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
USD 1,1716.0 billion USD 2,262.2 billion USD 1,755.2 billion
Largest companies

Evonik, RWE Group, Porsche Automobil Holding, Deutsche Boerse, Uniper, Covestro, Infineon Technologies, EnBW-Energie Baden, Deutsche Wohnen, ThyssenKrupp Group, Beiersdorf, TUI, Schaeffler, Knorr-Bremse, Metro Group, Brenntag, Volkswagen Group, Allianz, Daimler, BMW Group, Siemens, BASF, Deutsche Telekom, Munich Re, Bayer, SAP, Deutsche Post, Continental, Fresenius, E.ON, Henkel, Deutsche Lufthansa, Adidas, HeidelbergCement, Talanx, Commerzbank, Deutsche Bank, Merck, Vonovia, Wuestenrot & Wuerttembergische, KION Group, Ceconomy, HELLA, MTU Aero Engines AG, LEG Immobilien AG, Deutsche Pfandbriefbank, BayWa, Wirecard, Aareal Bank, Nuernberger Beteiligungs, Zalando, Fraport, Lanxess

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD 289.5 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

7.3 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

47% (2018)

Shares in world total merchandising export

8.01% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

5.64% (2018)

Total exports

USD 1,857.2 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products

Total imports

USD 1,615.6 billion (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products

Exports - major partners

US 8.8%, France 8.2%, China 6.8%, Netherlands 6.7%, UK 6.6%, Italy 5.1%, Austria 4.9%, Poland 4.7%, Switzerland 4.2% (2017)

Imports - major partners

Netherlands 13.8%, China 7%, France 6.6%, Belgium 5.9%, Italy 5.4%, Poland 5.4%, Czechia 4.8%, US 4.5%, Austria 4.3%, Switzerland 4.2% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 23,500 million USD 36,931 million USD 25,706 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 71,244 million USD 91,799 million USD 77,076 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD 47,640 million

USD -6,559 million

USD 31,879 million USD 72,812 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

Bayer AG, Merck & Co Inc-Consumer Care Business, United States, USD 14.2 billion / Telefonica Deutschland Holding AG, E-Plus Mobilfunk GmbH & Co KG, Germany, USD 11.2 billion / Volkswagen AG, Scania AB, Sweden, USD 9.1 billion / Kronen Tausend985 GmbH, Sky Deutschland AG, Germany, USD 4.9 billion / Dragonfly GmbH & Co KgaA, Celesio AG, Germany, USD 4.8 billion / TUI AG, TUI Travel PLC, United Kingdom, USD 4.6 billion

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

Merck KGaA, Sigma-Aldrich Corp, United States, USD 16.9 billion / ZF Friedrichshafen AG, TRW Automotive Holdings Corp, United States, USD 12.5 billion / Deutsche Annington Immobilien SE, Gagfah SA, Luxembourg, USD 10.4 billion / Siemens AG, Dresser-Ran

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

22 out of 190 countries

​Subcategories:
Starting a Business: 125 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 30 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 5 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 76 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 48 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 61 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 46 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 42 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 13 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 4 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

7 out of 141 countries

(2019)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 24 / Score: 73.5 (Mostly free)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+1

Total area

357,022 sq km

Capital

Berlin 

Currency

Euros (EUR) 

Government type

Federal parliamentary republic

Languages

German (official)

Religions

Roman Catholic 28.2%, Protestant 26%, Muslim 5%, Orthodox 1.9%, other Christian 1.1%, other .9%, none 37% (2017 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015* 2020*
78.95 million 81.46 million 80.29 million 81.96 million 82.98 million

*Estimate 

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2018
71.4% 72.8% 75% 77.3%
Population median age

47.4 years 

Population growth rate

-0.17% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

80.9 years (2018 estimate)

Literacy

N/A

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

0% (last available estimate, 2015)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

31.7 (last available estimate, 2015)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Free
Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2019)
(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 51.7%

Mobile: 129.3%

(2018)

(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

89.74 % (2018)

Mercer Cost of living index

Munich: 67th
Frankfurt: 74th
Berlin: 81st
Düsseldorf: 92nd
Hamburg: 100th
Stuttgart: 126th
Nürnberg: 151st
Leipzig: 156th

(2019)

CO2 emissions

8.89 metric tons per capita (2014)

World's Best Developed & Emerging Markets Banks

World's Best Islamic Financial Institutions

World's Best Global Banks

Best Risk Management Providers - Insurance & Derivatives

World's Best Internet Banks

World’s Best Treasury & Cash Management Providers

World's Best Supply Chain Finance Providers

World's Best Subcustodian Banks

World’s Best Investment Banks

World's Safest

World’s Best Foreign Exchange Providers

World's Best Banks By Region

World's Best Banks

2012

World’s Best Trade Finance Banks

Best of…

World's Biggest Banks

Additional Awards