Source
Central bank

Bank of Greece

International Reserves

USD 7.6 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 219.1 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 312.7 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
3.3% -0.3% -4.3% -5.5% -9.1% -7.3% -3.2%
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*    
0.7% -0.4% -0.2% 1.5% 2.1%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 20,407.9 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 29,123.0 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2019*
0.66% 0.51% 0.43% 0.36% 0.23%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 3.7% 
  • industry: 15.3% 
  • services: 68.1%

(2019 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

1.1% (2018)

OECD, data retrieved October 2019

 

Inflation
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-1.1% 0% 1.1% 0.8% 0.6%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
24.9% 23.6% 21.5% 19.3% 17.8%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

-16.9% (2017)

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
177.8% 181.1% 179.3% 184.9% 176.6%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-2.8% 0.6% 1.1% 1% -0.3%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: B+

Moody's: B1

Standard & Poor's / Moody's 

Source
Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
USD 37.2 billion USD 50.6 billion USD 38.4 billion
Largest companies

National Bank of Greece, Piraeus Bank, Alpha Bank, Eurobank Ergasias

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -7.7 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-3.5 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

36.1% (2018)

Shares in world total merchandising export

0.20% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.75% (2018)

Total exports

USD 81.4 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Food and beverages, manufactured goods, petroleum products, chemicals, textiles

Total imports

USD 85.7 billion (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery, transport equipment, fuels, chemicals

Exports - major partners

Italy 10.6%, Germany 7.1%, Turkey 6.8%, Cyprus 6.5%, Bulgaria 4.9%, Lebanon 4.3% (2017)

Imports - major partners

Germany 10.4%, Italy 8.2%, Russia 6.8%, Iraq 6.3%, South Korea 6.1%, China 5.4%, Netherlands 5.3%, France 4.3% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 2,763 million USD 3,611 million USD 4,257 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD -1,666 million USD 580 million USD 848 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD -140 million USD -3,462 million USD -915 million USD 629 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

79 out of 190 countries

​Subcategories:
Starting a Business: 11 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 86 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 40 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 156 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 119 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 37 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 72 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 34 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 146 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 72 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

59 out of 141 countries

(2019)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 106 / Score: 57.7 (Mostly unfree)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+2

Total area

131,957 sq km

Capital

Athens

Currency

Euros (EUR) 

Government type

Parliamentary republic

Languages

Greek (official) 99%, other (includes English and French) 1%

Religions

Greek Orthodox (official) 81-90%, Muslim 2%, other 3%, none 4-15%, unspecified 1% (2015 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020*
10.12 million 10.78 million 11.12 million 10.86 million 10.69 million

*Estimate 

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2018
55.9% 69.3% 72.7% 79.1%
Population median age

44.9 years

Population growth rate

-0.07% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

80.8 years (2018 estimate)

Literacy

Total population: 97.7% 
Male: 98.5% 
Female: 96.9%
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

2.7% (last available estimate, 2015)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

36 (last available estimate, 2015)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Free
Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 2 (2019)

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 47% Mobile: 115.7% (2018) 
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

72.95 % (2018)

Mercer Cost of living index

Athens: 128th (2019)

CO2 emissions

6.18 metric tons per capita (2014)

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