Source
Central bank

Central Bank of Nicaragua

International Reserves

USD 2.3 billion (2018)

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 14.3 billion (2017, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 13.3 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
4.8% 4.8% 4.7% 4.9% 4.0%

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 2,108.4 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 5,682.7 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
0.2% (2019)
 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 15.5% 
  • industry: 25.8% 
  • services: 50.2%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

N/A

 

Inflation
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
4.0% 3.5% 3.9% 5.0% 5.6%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
5.9% 4.5% 3.7% 5.5% 8.7%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

N/A

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
28.9% 30.9% 33.9% 37.2% 39.0%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
-1.7% -1.7% -1.6% -3.1% -3.1%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: B+

Moody's: B2

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated January 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2013 2014 2015
N/A N/A N/A
Largest companies

N/A

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD 0.1 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

0.6% (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

42% (2018 estimate)

Shares in world total merchandising export

0.03% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.02% (2018)

Total exports

USD 5.1 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Coffee, beef, gold, sugar, peanuts, shrimp and lobster, tobacco, cigars, automobile wiring harnesses, textiles, apparel, cotton

Total imports

USD 6.7 billion (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products

Exports - major partners

US 44.2%, El Salvador 6.4%, Venezuela 5.5%, Costa Rica 5.5% (2017)

Imports - major partners

US 20.8%, China 14.3%, Mexico 11.1%, Costa Rica 7.9%, Guatemala 7%, El Salvador 5.6%(2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 899 million USD 772 million USD 359 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 65 million USD 65 million USD 75 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

Best countries for doing business

Overall ranking: 142 out of 190 countries

Starting a Business: 145 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 176 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 115 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 160 out of 190 countries

Getting Credit: 104 out of 190 countries

Protecting Minority Investors: 170 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 162 out of 190 countries

Trading across Borders: 84 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 87 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 107 out of 190 countries

World Bank - Doing Business 2019

Global competitiveness ranking

109 out of 141 countries

​World Economic Forum - The Global Competitiveness Index 2019

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 107 / Score: 57.7 (Mostly unfree)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC-6

Total area

130,370 sq km

Capital

Managua

Currency

Cordobas (NIO)

Government type

Presidential republic

Languages

Spanish (official) 95.3%, Miskito 2.2%, Mestizo of the Caribbean coast 2%, other 0.5%

Note: English and indigenous languages found on the Caribbean coast (2005 est.)

Religions

Roman Catholic 58.5%, Protestant 23.2% (Evangelical 21.6%, Moravian 1.6%), Jehovah's Witnesses 0.9%, other 1.6%, none 15.7% (2005 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2016* 2021*
N/A 5.098 million 5.923 million 6.342 million 6.705 million

*Estimate

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2015
40% 50% 55% 59%
Population median age

25.2 years (2016 estimate)

Population growth rate

0.99% (2016 estimate)

Life expectancy

73.2 years (2016 estimate)

Literacy

Total population: 82.8%
Male: 82.4%
Female: 83.2% (2015 est.)

(age 15 and over can read and write)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

5.3% (2014)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

47.1 (2014)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 5
Civil Liberties: 4 (2017)                         

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 5.66%   Mobile 116.11% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

19.7% (2015)

Mercer Cost of living index

Managua: 192nd (2016)

CO2 emissions

0.8 (2013)

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