Source
Central bank

National Bank of Romania

International Reserves

USD 42.1 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 239.9 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 516.3 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
6.9% 9.3% -5.5% -3.9% 2% 2.1% 3.5%
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018*    
3.4% 3.9% 4.8% 7% 4.1%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 12,285.2 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 26,446.7 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2019*
0.83% 0.65% 0.37% 0.38% 0.38%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 4.3% 
  • industry: 29% 
  • services: 57.1%

(2018 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

0.5% (2017)

OECD, data retrieved October 2019

Inflation
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-0.6% -1.6% 1.3% 4.6% 4.2%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
6.8% 5.9% 4.9% 4.2% 4.3%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

N/A

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
39.4% 38.9% 36.9% 36.7% 37.4%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-1.4% -2.4% -2.8% -2.8% -3.7%

*Estimate   

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: BBB-

Moody's: Baa3

Standard & Poor's / Moody's 

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
N/A N/A N/A
Largest companies

N/A

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -10.8 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-4.5 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

41.6% (2018)

Shares in world total merchandising export

0.41% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.46% (2018)

Total exports

USD 99.6 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials

Total imports

USD 107.3 billion (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials

Exports - major partners

Germany 23%, Italy 11.2%, France 6.8%, Hungary 4.7%, UK 4.1% (2017)

Imports - major partners

Germany 20%, Italy 10%, Hungary 7.5%, Poland 5.5%, France 5.3%, China 5%, Netherlands 4% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 4,997 million USD 5,406 million USD 5,888 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 4.6 million USD -96.4 million USD 13.1 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
N/A N/A USD 6.3 million USD 3.4 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

55 out of 190 countries

Subcategories:
Starting a Business: 91 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 147 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 157 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 46 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 25 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 61 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 32 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 1 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 19 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 56 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

51 out of 141 countries

(2019)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 42 / Score: 68.6 (Moderately free)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+2

Total area

238,391 sq km

Capital

Bucharest 

Currency

Lei (RON) 

Government type

Semi-presidential republic

Languages

Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

Religions

Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020*
23.4 million 22.44 million 20.3 million 19.88 million 19.52 million

*Estimate

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2018
34.2% 46.1% 53% 54%
Population median age

41.6 years (2018 estimate)

Population growth rate

-0.35% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

75.6 years (2018 estimate)

Literacy

Total population: 98.8% 
Male: 99.1% 
Female: 98.5%
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

13.2% (last available estimate, 2015)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

35.9 (last available estimate, 2015)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Free
Political Rights: 2
Civil Liberties: 2 (2019)
(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 18.8% Mobile: 116.2% (2018)

(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

70.68 % (2018)

Mercer Cost of living index

Bucharest: 176th (2019)

CO2 emissions

3.52 metric tons per capita (2014)

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