Source
Central bank

Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency

International Reserves

USD 496.6 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 782.5 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 1,857.5 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
1.8% 6.3% -2.1% 5% 10% 5.4% 2.7%
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018*    
3.7% 4.1% 1.7% -0.7% 2.2%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 23,566.4 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 55,943.9 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2019*
2.01% 1.44% 1.27% 1.41% 1.4%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 2.2% 
  • industry: 49.7% 
  • services: 48.2%

(2018 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

N/A

 

Inflation
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
1.3% 2% -0.9% 2.5% -1.1%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019
5.6% 5.6% 6% 6% N/A

*Estimate

Household saving rates

N/A

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
5.8% 13.1% 17.2% 19% 23.2%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018* 2019*
-15.8% -17.2% -9.2% -5.9% -6.1%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: A-

Moody's: A1

Standard & Poor's / Moody's 

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
USD 448.8 billion USD 451.4 billion USD 496.4 billion
Largest companies

Petro Rabigh, Saudi Arabian Fertilizers, Saudi Basic Industries, Saudi Telecom, National Commercial Bank, Al Rajhi Bank, Saudi Electricity, Samba Financial Group, Riyad Bank, Saudi British Bank, Banque Saudi Fransi, Arab National Bank, Alinma Bank, Saudi Arabian Mining, Almarai

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD 0.0 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-10.9 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

N/A

Shares in world total merchandising export

0.0001% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.001% (2018)

Total exports

USD 111.0 million (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Cocoa 68%, copra, coffee, palm oil (2010 est.)

Total imports

USD 199.1 million (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery and electrical equipment, food products, petroleum products

Exports - major partners

Guyana 43.7%, Germany 23.6%, Portugal 6%, Netherlands 5.5%, Poland 4.4% (2017)

Imports - major partners

Portugal 54.7%, Angola 16.5%, China 5.6% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 22 million USD 41 million USD 17 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 1.0 million USD 0.3 million USD 2.1 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

170 out of 190 countries

​Subcategories:
Starting a Business: 150 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 111 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 130 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 172 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 165 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 179 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 137 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 124 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 185 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 168 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

N/A

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 134 / Score: 54 (Mostly unfree)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+3

Total area

2,149,690 sq km

Capital

Riyadh

Currency

Saudi riyals (SAR)

Government type

Absolute monarchy

Languages

Arabic (official)

Religions

Muslim (official; citizens are 85-90% Sunni and 10-15% Shia), other (includes Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh) (2012 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2016* 2021*
15.187 million 20.474 million 27.563 million 32.013 million 35.345 million

*Estimate 

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2015
31% 66% 80% 83%
Population median age

27.2 years (2016 estimate)

Population growth rate

1.46% (2016 estimate)

Life expectancy

75.3 years (2016 estimate)

Literacy

Total population: 94.7%
Male: 97%
Female: 91.1% (2015 est.)

(age 15 and over can read and write)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

N/A

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

N/A

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 7
Civil Liberties: 7 (2017)                         

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 12.53%   Mobile 176.59% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

69.62% (2015)

Mercer Cost of living index

Riyadh: 57th 
Jeddah: 121st

(2016)

CO2 emissions

17.9 (2013)

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