Source
Central bank

Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency

International Reserves

USD 616.5 billion (2015)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved January 2017

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 689.0 billion (2017, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 1,803.4 billion (2017, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
2.8% 1.9% 6.3% -2.1% 4.8% 10% 5.4%
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*    
2.7% 3.6% 3.5% 1.2% 2%    

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 21,100.3 (2017, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 55,228.5 (2017, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total
1980 1990 2000 2010 2017*
2.01% 1.44% 1.27% 1.41% 1.4%

*Estimate

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 2.4% 
  • industry: 42.9% 
  • services: 54.7%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

N/A

 

Inflation
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
3.5% 2.7% 2.2% 4.0% 2.0%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
5.6% 5.7% 5.6% N/A N/A

*Estimate

Household saving rates

N/A

 

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
2.2% 1.6% 5% 14.1% 19.9%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2013 2014 2015 2016* 2017*
5.8% -3.4% -15.9% -13% -9.5%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: A-

Moody's: A1

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated January 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2013 2014 2015
USD 467.4 billion USD 483.1 billion USD 421.1 billion
Largest companies

Saudi Basic Industries, Saudi Telecom, National Commercial Bank, Al Rajhi Bank, Saudi Electricity, Samba Financial Group, Saudi British Bank, Riyad Bank, Banque Saudi Fransi, Arab National Bank, Saudi Hollandi Bank, Saudi Arabian Mining, Almarai, Savola Group, Alinma Bank, Kingdom Holding, Saudi Investment Bank, Saudi Arabian Fertilizers, Bank Aljazira, Petro Rabigh, Jabal Omar Development.

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -17.7 billion (2017 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-2.6% (2017 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

33.7% (2015)

Shares in world total merchandising export

1.2% (2015)

Shares in world total commercial services export

0.3% (2015)

Total exports

USD 205.3 billion (2016 estimate)

Export commodities

Petroleum and petroleum products 90% (2012 estimate)

Total imports

USD 157.7 billion (2016 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles

Exports - major partners

China 13.2%, Japan 10.9%, US 9.6%, India 9.6%, South Korea 8.5% (2015)

Imports - major partners

China 13.9%, US 12.7%, Germany 7.1%, South Korea 6.1%, India 4.5%, Japan 4.4%, UK 4.3% (2015)

FDI inflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 8,865 million USD 8,012 million USD 8,141 million
FDI outflows
2013 2014 2015
USD 4,943 million USD 5,396 million USD 5,520 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2012 2013 2014 2015
USD 293.9 million USD 519.9 million USD -673.9 million USD 3333.1 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 94 out of 190 countries (2017)

Starting a business: 147 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 105 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 32 out of 190 countries

Getting Credit: 82 out of 190 countries

Protecting Minority Investors: 63 out of 190 countries

Trading Across Borders: 158 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 69 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 15 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 28 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 169 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

29 out of 138 countries

(2016-2017)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 78 / Score: 62.09 (Moderately free) (2016)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC+3

Total area

2,149,690 sq km

Capital

Riyadh

Currency

Saudi riyals (SAR)

Government type

Absolute monarchy

Languages

Arabic (official)

Religions

Muslim (official; citizens are 85-90% Sunni and 10-15% Shia), other (includes Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh) (2012 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2016* 2021*
15.187 million 20.474 million 27.563 million 32.013 million 35.345 million

*Estimate 

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2015
31% 66% 80% 83%
Population median age

27.2 years (2016 estimate)

Population growth rate

1.46% (2016 estimate)

Life expectancy

75.3 years (2016 estimate)

Literacy

Total population: 94.7%
Male: 97%
Female: 91.1% (2015 est.)

(age 15 and over can read and write)

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

N/A

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

N/A

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 7
Civil Liberties: 7 (2017)                         

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 12.53%   Mobile 176.59% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

69.62% (2015)

Mercer Cost of living index

Riyadh: 57th 
Jeddah: 121st

(2016)

CO2 emissions

17.9 (2013)

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