Central Bank of the Eurosystem  

European Central Bank (2009)

International Reserves

US$816.040 billion (IMF, 2014)

Countries that are part of the Eurosystem (Countries that use the euro)

Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain

The micro-states of Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City also use the euro, on the basis of a formal arrangement with the European Community. Andorra, Montenegro and Kosovo likewise use the euro, but without a formal arrangement.

Gross Domestic Product at market prices

European Union
2014: US$18,399 billion (estimate)

Euro area
2014: US$13,416 billion (estimate)


Euro area
2011: 9,298,403 millions of euro (estimate)
2012: 9,269,467 millions of euro (forecast)

GDP PPP (Purchasing Power Parity)

European Union
2014: 18,124  billion current International Dollars (estimate)

Euro area
2014: 11,668.7 billion current International Dollars (estimate)

Real GDP growth
  2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014*


-16.4% 8.2% 11.4% 11.9% 10.6% 3.3% 3.1%
Euro area 3.0% 0.4% -4.4% 2.0% 1.6% -0.7% -0.5% 1.2%
GDP per capita PPP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Euro area
2014: 35,849 current International Dollars (estimate)

GDP - composition by sector

agriculture: 1.8%
industry: 25.2%
services: 72.8%  (2013 est.)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (% of GDP)

EU 28: 2.07% (2012 Eurostat estimate)
Euro area 17: 2.17% (2012 Eurostat estimate)

  2012 2013 2014*
European Union 2.3% 0.9% 1.3%
Euro area 2.5% 1.3% 0.9%


Unemployment rate, Euro area




11.4% 12.1% 11.9%


Gross household saving rate (%)

European Union: N/A

Euro area: 7.9% (2014)


General government balance (% of GDP)
  2011 2012



European Union -4.4% -4.2% -3.3% -2.9%
Euro area -4.2% -3.7% -3.0% -2.6%


General government debt(% of GDP)
  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014*
EU 79.5% 82.0% 86.1% 88.0% 89.1%
Euro area 85.7% 88.1% 92.8% 95.2% 95.6%


Largest companies in Europe

HSBC Holdings, Royal Dutch Shell, BP, ING Group, Royal Bank of Scotland, BNP Paribas, Allianz, Total, AXA Group, Banco Santander, Barclays, EDF Group, E.ON, ENI, Deutsche Bank, UniCredit Group, Telefónica, Volkswagen Group, ArcelorMittal, Daimler, BBVA-Banco Bilbao Vizcaya, Credit Suisse Group, HBOS, Crédit Agricole, Nestlé, Fortis, France Telecom, Siemens, Lloyds TSB Group, StatoilHydro, Generali Group, Suez Group, Zurich Financial Services, Sanofi-aventis, Nokia, Munich Re, Novartis, Roche Holding, Rio Tinto, GlaxoSmithKline

Top 15 Banks in the EU

HSBC, United Kingdom
BNP Paribas ,France
Credit Agricole, France
Deutsche Bank, Germany
Barclays, United Kingdom
Societe Generale, France
Royal Bank of Scotland, United Kingdom
Groupe BPCE, France
Banco Santander, Spain
ING Netherlands
Sparkassen-Finanzgruppe,  Germany
Lloyds Bank, United Kingdom
UniCredit, Italy
Rabobank, Netherlands
Nordea, Sweden

Current Account Balance (% GDP)

EU 1.937% (2014 estimate)

Euro Area 2.918% (2014 estimate)

Share of world market for traded goods

Export 15.33% (2013)
Import: 14.78% (2013)
(share of world total excluding intra-EU trade)

Share of world total merchandising export

EU 15.33% (2013)

Share of world total commercial services export

EU 25.19% (2013)

Total export (trade in goods and commercial services, excluding intra-EU trade)

Merchandise exports US$2,307,007 million
Commercial services exports US$890,777 million

Export commodities

machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, fuels, aircraft, plastics, iron and steel, wood pulp and paper products, alcoholic beverages, furniture

Total import (trade in goods and commercial services, excluding intra-EU trade)

Merchandise imports US$2,234,603 million
Commercial services imports US$668,467 million

Import commodities

fuels and crude oil, machinery, vehicles, pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, precious gemstones, textiles, aircraft, plastics, metals, ships

Export - Main trading partners (excluding intra-EU trade)

US, Switzerland, China, Russian Federation, Turkey (2013)

Import - Main trading partners

China, Russian Federation, US, Switzerland, Norway (2013)

Foreign direct investment inflows (from extra EU countries)

EU $246,207 millions (2013)

Foreign direct investment outflows (toward extra EU countries)

EU $250,460 million (2013)

Time zone

UTC 0, UTC+1, UTC+2

Total area

4,324,782 sq km

Member states European Union

28 countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, UK

Candidate countries European Union

Albania, Iceland, Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia, Turkey


Political centres European Union

Brussels (Belgium), Strasbourg (France), Luxembourg note - the European Council and the Council of the European Union meet in Brussels, Belgium; the European Parliament meets in Brussels and Strasbourg, France, and has administrative offices in Luxembourg; the Court of Justice of the European Union meets in Luxembourg


Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, Gaelic, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish


Roman Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish

Total population

EU: 507,416,607 (2014 estimate)
EA: 334,570,678 (2014 estimate)

Population density (inhabitants per km²)

116.3 (2012)

Population age structure

0-14 years: 15.43% (male 40,489,605/female 38,450,957)
15-24 years: 11.21% (male 29,297,915/female 28,019,963)
25-54 years: 42.13% (male 108,580,059/female 106,875,351)
55-64 years: 12.74% (male 31,624,447/female 33,531,109)
65 years and over: 18.49% (male 40,278,139/female 54,287,267) (2014 est.)

Population growth rate

European Union:  0.22% (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth by gender

male: 77.19 years
female: 83.01 years
total population: 80.02 years (2014 est.)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini Index)

European Union: 30.6 (2012 est.) 
(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Computer use (Individuals who used a computer within the last year)

EU: 77% (2013)

% of households who have internet access at home

EU: 79% (2013)
Euro area: 79% (2013)

% of households with a broadband connection

EU: 76% (2013)
Euro area: 76% (2013)

Cost of living Index

London, United Kingdom 12th
Copenhagen, Denmark 15th
Paris, France 27th
Rome, Italy 31st
Vienna, Austria 32nd
Stockholm, Sweden 38th
Amsterdam, Netherlands 39th
Helsinki, Finland 42nd
Dublin, Ireland 51st
Brussels, Belgium 56th
Luxembourg, Luxembourg 56th
Madrid, Spain 63rd
Berlin, Germany 68th
Riga, Latvia 75th
Athens, Greece 78th
Bratislava, Slovakia 84th
Prague, Czech Republic 92nd
Lisbon, Portugal 94th
Tallinn, Estonia 110th
Limassol, Cyprus 113th
Ljubljana, Slovenia 116th
Zagreb, Croatia 120th
Vilnius, Lithuania 130th
Budapest, Hungary 135th
Warsaw, Poland 142nd
Bucharest, Romania 159th
Sofia, Bulgaria 172th