Source
Central bank

Bank of England

International Reserves

USD 239.19 billion (2021)
International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved January 2022

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 3,108.42 billion (2021 estimate)
IMF - World Economic Outlook, October 2021

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

USD 3,276.14 billion (2021 estimate)
IMF - World Economic Outlook, October 2021

Real GDP growth
2017 2018 2019 2020* 2021*
1.7% 1.3% 1.4% –9.8% 6.8%

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 46,200.26 (2021 estimate)
IMF - World Economic Outlook, October 2021

GDP per capita - PPP

USD 48,693.18 (2021 estimate)
IMF - World Economic Outlook, October 2021

GDP (PPP) - share of world total

2.27% (2021 estimate)
IMF - World Economic Outlook, October 2021

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 0.6% 
  • industry: 16.9% 
  • services: 72.8%

(2020 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

1.8% (2019)
OECD, retrieved January 2022

Inflation
2017 2018 2019 2020* 2021*
2.7% 2.5% 1.8% 0.9% 2.2%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2017 2018 2019 2020* 2021*
4.4% 4.1% 3.8% 4.5% 5.0%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

7.5% (2020)
OECD, retrieved January 2022

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2017 2018 2019 2020* 2021*
86.3% 85.8% 85.2% 104.5% 108.5%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2017 2018 2019 2020* 2021*
–0.6% –0.6% –0.9% –11.4% –10.8%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA

Moody's: Aa3

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (January 2022)

Market value of publicly traded shares

USD 3,570.9 billion (2014)
World Bank / Market capitalization

Largest companies

HSBC Holdings, Unilever, GlaxoSmithKline, Prudential, Vodafone, Barclays, Linde, AstraZeneca, Lloyds Banking Group, Legal & General Group, Anglo American, National Grid, Tesco, Diageo, Reckitt Benckiser Group, BT Group, LyondellBasell Industries, BP, Imperial Brands, Phoenix Group Holdings, Standard Chartered, M&G, NatWest Group, Willis Towers Watson, RELX, London Stock Exchange, Ferguson, SSE, CNH Industrial, Coca-Cola European Partners, Amcor, Compass Group, WPP, St. James's Place, Liberty Global, Kingfisher, Rolls-Royce Holdings, Ashtead Group, Segro, Investec, Evraz Group, J Sainsbury, IHS Markit, International Airlines, Bunzl, Antofagasta, RSA Insurance Group, Mondi, Melrose Industries, 3i Group, Centrica, Quilter, Persimmon, Standard Life, Wm Morrison Supermarkets, Technipfmc, Admiral Group, Virgin Money UK, TP ICAP, Smith & Nephew, Johnson Matthey, JD Sports Fashion, Just Group, Royal Mail, Barratt Developments, Dixons Carphone
Forbes Global 2000 (2021)

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -104.6 billion (2021 estimate)
IMF - World Economic Outlook, October 2021

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-3.4% (2021 estimate)
IMF - World Economic Outlook, October 2021

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

28.1% (2020)
World Bank - World Development Indicators (updated Feb 2022)

Shares in world total merchandising export

2.3% (2020)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Shares in world total commercial services export

7.4% (2020)

Total exports

USD 741.2 billion (2020 estimate)

Export commodities

Cars, gas turbines, gold, crude petroleum, packaged medicines (2019)

Total imports

USD 750.9 billion (2020 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Gold, cars, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment (2019)

Exports - major partners

United States 15%, Germany 10%, China 7%, Netherlands 7%, France 7%, Ireland 6% (2019)

Imports - major partners

Germany 13%, China 10%, United States 8%, Netherlands 7%, France 6%, Belgium 5% (2019)

FDI inflows
2019 2020 2021
USD 65.3 billion USD 45.5 billion USD 19.7 billion
FDI outflows
2019 2020 2021
USD 44.4 billion USD –6.1 billion USD 33.4 billion
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2018 2019 2020 20121
USD 128 million USD 72.4 billion USD 17.8 billion USD 73.7 billion
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

N/A

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

N/A

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 8 out of 190 countries (2020)

Subcategories:

Starting a Business: 18 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 23 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 8 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 41 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 37 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 7 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 27 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 33 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 34 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 14 out of 190 countries
World Bank - Doing Business 2020

Global competitiveness ranking

2 out of 141 (2019)
World Economic Forum / Global competitiveness ranking

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 24 / Score: 72.7 (Mostly Free)
The Heritage Foundation - 2022 Index of Economic Freedom

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC 0

Total area

243,610 sq km

Capital

London 

Currency

British pounds (GBP) 

Government type

Parliamentary constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Languages

English / note: the following are recognized regional languages: Scots (about 30% of the population of Scotland), Scottish Gaelic (about 60,000 speakers in Scotland), Welsh (about 20% of the population of Wales), Irish (about 10% of the population of Northern Ireland), Cornish (some 2,000 to 3,000 people in Cornwall) (2012 est.)

Religions

Christian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none 25.7% (2011 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020
57.2 million 58.9 million 62.8 million 65.1 million 67.2 million
 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2020
78.4% 78.5% 78.7% 83.9%
Population median age

40.6 years (2022 est.)

Population growth rate

0.53% (2022 est.)

Life expectancy

81.9 years (2022 est.)

Literacy

N/A

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

0.5% (last available estimate, 2017)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

35.1 (last available estimate, 2017)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Total score: 93/100

Status: Free

Political Rights: 39/40 Civil Liberties: 54/60 (2022)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 47.2%

Mobile: 116.4% (2020) (fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

94.8% (2020)

Mercer Cost of living index

N/A

CO2 emissions

5.4 metric tons per capita (2018)

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