Source
Central bank

Bank of England

International Reserves

USD 197.4 billion (2018)

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 2,828.6 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 3,037.8 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018*
2.9% 2.3% 1.8% 1.8% 1.4%

*Estimate

GDP per capita - current prices

USD 42,558.0 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 45,704.6 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total

2.2% (2019)

 
 
Source
GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 0.6% 
  • industry: 18% 
  • services: 70.5%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

1.7% (2017)

OECD, data retrieved October 2019

Inflation
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
0% 0.7% 2.7% 2.5% 1.8%

*Estimate

Unemployment rate
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
5.4% 4.9% 4.4% 4.1% 3.8%

*Estimate

Household saving rates

-0.9% (2017)

Public debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
87.9% 87.9% 87.1% 86.8% 85.6%

*Estimate

Public deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018*
-4.2% -2.9% -1.8% -1.4% -1.4%

*Estimate

Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA

Moody's: Aa2

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated January 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares

N/A

Largest companies

3i Group, Phoenix Group Holdings, Ashtead Group, RSA Insurance Group, Johnson Matthey, Bunzl, IHS Markit, Segro, Smith & Nephew, St. James's Place, Barratt Developments, Persimmon, Next, Wm Morrison Supermarkets, Antofagasta, BT Group, Diageo, Reckitt Benckiser Group, LyondellBasell Industries, Standard Chartered, Imperial Brands, International Airlines, Vodafone, CNH Industrial, WPP, Compass Group, Associated British Foods, Aon, RELX, Coca-Cola European Partners, HSBC Holdings, BP, Lloyds Banking Group, British American Tobacco, Rio Tinto, Prudential, GlaxoSmithKline, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Royal Bank of Scotland, Barclays, Linde, Aviva, AstraZeneca, National Grid, Tesco, Anglo American, Legal & General Group, Land Securities Group, Burberry Group, Berkeley Group Holdings, Inchcape, Daily Mail & General Trust, TP ICAP, Micro Focus International, Kingfisher, Taylor Wimpey, Quilter, Whitbread, Cybg, Atlassian, United Utilities, Informa plc, Marks & Spencer, Dixons Carphone, Royal Mail, Sensata Technologies Holding, EasyJet, Thomas Cook Group, Willis Towers Watson, London Stock Exchange, Rolls-Royce Holdings, Liberty Global, SSE, Ferguson, Evraz Group, Mylan, Centrica, En+ Group Plc Sponsored GDR RegS, J Sainsbury, Investec, Melrose Industries Plc, Technipfmc, Mondi

 
 
Source
Current account balance

USD -109.1 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-3.9% (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

29.9% (2018)

Shares in world total merchandising export

2.49% (2018)

Shares in world total commercial services export

6.46% (2018)

Total exports

USD 844.0 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco

Total imports

USD 887.4 billion (2018 estimate)

 
 
Source
Import commodities

Manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs

Exports - major partners

US 13.2%, Germany 10.5%, France 7.4%, Netherlands 6.2%, Ireland 5.6%, China 4.8%, Switzerland 4.5% (2017)

Imports - major partners

Germany 13.7%, US 9.5%, China 9.3%, Netherlands 8%, France 5.4%, Belgium 5% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 196,132 million USD 101,238 million USD 64,487 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD -22,516 million USD 117,544 million USD 49,880 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD 37,757 million USD 19,744 million USD 128,184 million USD 72,400 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

Liberty Global PLC, Ziggo NV, Netherlands, USD 6.8 billion / Rolls-Royce Holdings PLC, Engine Holding GmbH, Germany, USD 3.4 billion

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

Aviva PLC, Friends Life Group Ltd, Guernsey, USD 8.7 billion / GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Novartis AG-Vaccines Business, Switzerland, USD 7.1 billion / L1 Energy Ltd, RWE Dea AG, Germany, USD 7.1 billion / Imperial Tobacco Group PLC, Reynolds American Inc-Cigarette Brands Portfolio & Other Assets, United States, USD 7.1 billion / Gaetano Holdings Ltd, Komi Oil OOO, Russian Federation, USD 5.0 billion / British American Tobacco PLC, Reynolds American Inc, United States, USD 4.7 billion / CVC Capital Partners Ltd, Douglas Holding AG, Germany, USD 3.1 billion / Investor Group, E ON Espana SL, Spain, USD 3.1 billion / Cable & Wireless Communications PLC, Columbus International Inc, Bahamas, USD 3.1 billion

(for a monthly update on M&A; click here )

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 8 out of 190 countries (2019)

Subcategories:

Starting a business: 18 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 23 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 8 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 41 out of 190 countries

Getting Credit: 37 out of 190 countries

Protecting Minority Investors: 7 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 27 out of 190 countries

Trading across Borders: 33 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 34 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 14 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

9 out of 141 countries (2019)

 

 

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 7 / Score: 78.9 (Mostly free) (2019)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

 
 
Source
Time zone

UTC 0

Total area

243,610 sq km

Capital

London 

Currency

British pounds (GBP) 

Government type

Parliamentary constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm

Languages

English, Scottish Gaelic (about 60,000 speakers in Scotland), Welsh (about 20% of the population of Wales), Irish (about 10% of the population of Northern Ireland), Cornish (some 2,000 to 3,000 people in Cornwall) (2012 est.)

Religions

Christian (includes Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist) 59.5%, Muslim 4.4%, Hindu 1.3%, other 2%, unspecified 7.2%, none 25.7% (2011 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020*
57.238 million 58.886 million 62.76 million 65.572 million 67.781 million

*Estimate 

 
 
Source
Urban population as % of total population
1960 1980 2000 2020
78.4% 78.5% 78.7% 83.4%
Population median age

40.5 years (2018 estimate)

Population growth rate

0.51% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

80.9 years (2018 estimate)

Literacy

N/A

% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

0.2%

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

33.2 (2015)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2019)                         

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Source
Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 47.6%   Mobile 117.5% (2018)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

94.9% (2018)

Mercer Cost of living index

London: 23rd
Birmingham: 135th
Aberdeen: 137th
Glasgow: 145th
Belfast: 158th

(2019)

CO2 emissions

6.5 (2014)

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