Central bank

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

International Reserves

USD 125.0 billion (2018)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved October 2019

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 20,494.1 billion (2018, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 20,494.1 billion (2018, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
2.5% 2.9% 1.6% 2.2% 2.9%*


GDP per capita - current prices

USD 62,605.6 (2018, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 62,605.6 (2018, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total

15% (2019, estimate)

GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 0.9% 
  • industry: 18.2% 
  • services: 77.4%

(2017 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

2.8% (2017)

OECD, data retrieved October 2019

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
0.1% 1.3% 2.1% 2.4%* 1.8%*


Unemployment rate
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
5.3% 4.9% 4.4% 3.9% 3.7%*


Household saving rates

6.9% (2017)

Public Debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2018 2018 2019
104.7% 106.8% 106.0% 104.3%* 106.2%*


Public Deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
-3.6% -4.3% -4.5% -5.7%* -5.6%*


Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA+

Moody's: Aaa

Standard & Poor's / Moody's 

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
USD 27,352.2 billion USD 32,120.7 billion USD 30,436.3 billion
Largest companies

Agilent Technologies, Markel, Welltower, Twitter, Illumina, Steel Dynamics, Boston Properties, American Water Works, Goodyear, Annaly Capital Management, Paychex, Bunge, Westlake Chemical, KLA-Tencor, Monster Beverage, Ally Financial, Northern Trust, American Tower, CME Group, Kraft Heinz Company, Colgate-Palmolive, Boston Scientific, Kimberly-Clark, CBS, Dollar General, DISH Network, Keurig Dr Pepper, PPL, Royal Caribbean Cruises, McKesson, American Equity Investment, Spirit AeroSystems, First Horizon National, Synopsys, Church & Dwight, Xylem, Total System Services, Tapestry, Red Hat, Waters, Pinnacle West, Vornado Realty, Reliance Steel, AECOM Technology, Huntsman, American Express, MetLife, PepsiCo, Oracle, Prudential Financial, US Bancorp, Ford Motor, Merck & Co., Caterpillar, Home Depot, Capital One Financial, Coca-Cola, Walgreens Boots Alliance, Anthem, PNC Financial Services, Ansys, Albemarle, IDEXX Laboratories, PacWest Bancorp, Palo Alto Networks, SBA Communications, Hyatt Hotels, Tenneco, Core-Mark Holding, Hanesbrands, Liberty Broadband, Berry Global Group, Juniper Networks, Broadridge Financial, Chipotle Mexican Grill, Ares Capital, Newell Brands, SLM, SYNNEX, Copart, Toll Brothers, Mr. Cooper Group, Burlington Stores,, Avis Budget Group, Invitation Homes, Foot Locker, Alaska Air Group, Square, Ralph Lauren, Rite Aid, AutoNation, Starwood Property Trust, Community Health Systems, Vulcan Materials, News Corp, Frontier Communications, New York Community Bancorp, UGI, NiSource, ServiceNow, Workday, Alcoa, Old Dominion Freight Line, Citrix Systems, Tiffany & Co., Avery Dennison, Hertz Global Holdings, Symantec, Kansas City Southern, Match Group, SS&C Technologies, Autodesk, Alexandria Real Estate Equities, PBF Energy, Align Technology, INTL FCStone, BOK Financial, Essex Property Trust, Cullen/Frost Bankers, Baxter International, Devon Energy, Eversource Energy, Oneok, TD Ameritrade Holding, Parker-Hannifin, Kellogg, WEC Energy Group, Prologis, Republic Services, D.R. Horton, Ross Stores, Activision Blizzard, Analog Devices, Viacom, CarMax, CenturyLink, Fortive, Concho Resources, Raymond James Financial, First Republic Bank, Edison International, AutoZone, Macy's, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Textron, O'Reilly Automotive, Comerica, Genuine Parts, PG&E, Celgene, American Electric, PayPal, EOG Resources, Archer Daniels Midland, Mastercard, Kinder Morgan, SunTrust Banks, Discover Financial Services, CSX, Starbucks, Fannie Mae, Tyson Foods, Becton Dickinson, Automatic Data Processing, Cigna, Honeywell International, ConocoPhillips, United Parcel Service, Visa, AbbVie, Phillips 66, Marathon Petroleum, Costco Wholesale, Amgen, Bank of New York Mellon, Broadcom, Lockheed Martin, Duke Energy, FedEx, Comcast, Johnson & Johnson, Intel, Goldman Sachs Group, Morgan Stanley, Boeing, Procter & Gamble, Pfizer, General Motors, IBM, Facebook, Walt Disney, Cisco Systems, United Technologies, DowDuPont, Credit Acceptance, Owens Corning, LiveRamp Holdings, Cadence Design, Extra Space Storage, Zebra Technologies, Air Lease, CoStar Group, Sears Holdings, Western Alliance Bancorp., Cimarex Energy, VICI Properties, BJ's Wholesale Club, IBERIABANK, F5 Networks, Darden Restaurants, Clorox, BorgWarner, Ulta Beauty, Molina Healthcare, Interpublic Group, Evergy, PVH, Host Hotels & Resorts, Whirlpool, TransDigm Group, Aramark, PulteGroup, Xilinx, Schroders, Discovery, Williams, S&P Global, Intuit, LabCorp, E-Trade Financial, MGM Resorts, Ameren, Brighthouse Financial, Hilton, Amphenol, SVB Financial Group, Unum, Eastman Chemical, Conagra Brands, Dollar Tree, Ball, Yum! Brands, CDW, Arconic, IQVIA, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, AvalonBay Communities, Fiserv, Qurate Retail Group, Altice USA, WW Grainger, Gap, American Financial Group, CenterPoint Energy, East West Bancorp, New Residential Investment, Fastenal, Henry Schein, FleetCor Technologies, Torchmark, McCormick, Apache, NVR, Skyworks Solutions, Huntington Ingalls Industries, AGNC Investment, Signature Bank, Cerner, Ametek, Fidelity National Information, Huntington Bank, Molson Coors Brewing, AES, Tesla, Fox, Lam Research, Pioneer Natural Resources, VF, Reinsurance Group of America, Cardinal Health, Crown Castle International, CBRE Group, Stanley Black & Decker, WestRock, Hartford Financial Services, CVS Health, Marriott International, AmerisourceBergen, Biogen, Netflix, Applied Materials, Paccar, Sysco, Emerson Electric, International Paper, Halliburton,, Consolidated Edison, General Mills, Humana, Stryker, Freddie Mac, Booking Holdings, Ameriprise Financial, American Airlines Group, Norfolk Southern, Lincoln National, General Electric, TJX Cos, Southwest Airlines, Freeport-McMoRan, Texas Instruments, Principal Financial Group, JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Apple, Wells Fargo, ExxonMobil, AT&T, Citigroup, Microsoft, Alphabet, Chevron, Verizon Communications, Berkshire Hathaway, Amazon, Walmart, UnitedHealth Group, Keysight Technologies, Lyft, Wintrust Financial, Associated Banc-Corp, Booz Allen Hamilton Holding, CBOE Global Markets, Bank OZK, Snap, IDEX, Bed Bath & Beyond, Incyte, JC Penney, Lear, Kohl's, Zoetis, Weyerhaeuser, Cheniere Energy, L3 Technologies, United Rentals, Arrow Electronics, Marathon Oil, Hormel Foods, Alliance Data Systems, Franklin Resources, Hershey, CMS Energy, Roper Technologies, Liberty Expedia Holdings, US Foods, Nordstrom, Chesapeake Energy, Targa Resources, Advance Auto Parts, Popular, Campbell Soup, Microchip Technology, Verisk Analytics, Alleghany, Jones Lang LaSalle, J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Coty, VeriSign, LKQ, Digital Realty Trust, Crown Holdings, Jacobs Engineering, Leidos, Dover, L Brands, DaVita, Ventas, Tenet Healthcare, Tractor Supply, National Oilwell Varco, Fidelity National Financial, Manpower, Navient, Maxim Integrated Products, Packaging Corp of America, Cincinnati Financial, IAC/InterActiveCorp, Global Payments, Penske Automotive, Live Nation Entertainment, XPO Logistics, Advanced Micro Devices, Assurant, NASDAQ, People's United Financial, Tech Data, McDonald's, BB&T, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Danaher, Northrop Grumman, HP, Nike, Dominion Resources, Occidental Petroleum, Kroger, Raytheon, United Continental Holdings, Qualcomm, Carnival, State Street, Moody's, Cintas, Gallagher, Continental Resources, WellCare Health Plans, Celanese, Interactive Brokers Group, Mohawk Industries, NetApp, Universal Health, Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings, Vistra Energy, Invesco, Mosaic, Harris, Motorola Solutions, T Rowe Price, Expedia Group, Public Storage, Zions Bancorp, C.H. Robinson, WR Berkley, Voya Financial, Electronic Arts, HollyFrontier, Intuitive Surgical, Diamondback Energy, JM Smucker, Zimmer Biomet, Rockwell Automation, Navistar International, Commerce Bank, Old Republic International, Oshkosh, Medical Properties Trust, International Flavors & Fragrances, FMC, F.N.B., Chimera Investment, Cleveland-cliffs, Splunk, Murphy USA, United Natural Foods,, Veeva Systems, Omnicom Group, FirstEnergy, Anadarko Petroleum, Regions Financial, Simon Property Group, Corning, The Estée Lauder Companies, Loews, VMware, Best Buy, First Data, Air Products & Chemicals, Entergy, PPG, Western Digital, Public Service Enterprise Group, Adobe, Ecolab, DXC Technology, M&T Bank, Constellation Brands, Illinois Tool Works, Cognizant, DTE Energy, KeyCorp, NVIDIA, eBay, Citizens Financial Group, Nucor, Sherwin-Williams, Realty Income, Alliant Energy, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, CIT Group, MSCI, Mettler-Toledo International, Xerox, Western Union, Jefferies Financial, Caesars Entertainment, Chemours, ON Semiconductor Corp., Jabil Circuit, Noble Energy, World Fuel Services, Southern Company, 3M, Schlumberger, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Aflac, Allstate, Travelers, Mondelēz International, Target, Lowe's, General Dynamics, Eli Lilly, Charles Schwab, Progressive, HCA Healthcare, Union Pacific, Synchrony Financial, NextEra Energy, Deere & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Gilead Sciences, Exelon, Delta Air Lines, Charter Communications, Micron Technology, Altria Group, Valero Energy, Philip Morris International, BlackRock, W.P. Carey, Wayfair, Snap-on, Nielsen, Sterling Bancorp, Avnet, Cabot Oil & Gas, Synovus Financial, Fluor, ResMed, Atmos Energy, Arista Networks, Martin Marietta Materials, Performance Food Group, First Citizens Bank, Waste Management, Sempra Energy, American International Group, IntercontinentalExchange, Fifth Third Bank, Dell Technologies, Centene, BAE Systems, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Cummins, Marsh & McLennan, Xcel Energy, Las Vegas Sands, Lennar, Wynn Resorts, Equinix, Newmont Mining, Masco, Edwards Lifesciences, NRG Energy, US Steel, Expeditors International, Hess, Worldpay, Genworth Financial, HCP, Equity Residential, Quest Diagnostics, Brown-Forman

Current account balance

USD -491.0 billion (2018 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-2.4 % (2018 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

12.1% (2017)


Shares in world total merchandising export

8.54% (2018)


Shares in world total commercial services export

14.01% (2018)

Total exports

USD 2,502.8 billion (2018 estimate)

Export commodities

Agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0%(2008 est.)

Total imports

USD 3,120.9 billion (2018 estimate)

Import commodities

Agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys)(2008 est.)

Exports - major partners

Canada 18.3%, Mexico 15.7%, China 8.4%, Japan 4.4% (2017)

Imports - major partners

China 21.6%, Mexico 13.4%, Canada 12.8%, Japan 5.8%, Germany 5% (2017)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 471,792 million USD 277,258 million USD 251,814 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 289,261 million USD 300,378 million USD -63,550 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD 127,879 million USD 78,382 million USD 115,333 million USD 253,354 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

Verizon Communications Inc, Verizon Wireless Inc, United States, USD 130.3 billion / Walgreen Co, Alliance Boots GmbH, Switzerland, USD 15.3 billion / Burger King Worldwide Inc, Tim Hortons Inc, Canada, USD 13.4 billion / SAP America Inc, Concur Technologies Inc, United States, USD 9.1 billion / Blackstone Group LP, Gates Corp, United States, USD 5.4 billion / Microsoft Corp, Nokia Oyj-Devices & Services Business, Finland, USD 5.0 billion / Enterprise Products Partners LP, Oiltanking Partners LP, United States, USD 4.6 billion / Fiat North America LLC, Chrysler Group LLC, United States, USD 3.7 billion / Abbott Laboratories, CFR Pharmaceutical SA, Chile, USD 3.3 billion / Investor Group, Nets Holding A/S, Denmark, USD 3.2 billion / Archer Daniels Midland Co, WILD Flavors GmbH, Switzerland, USD 3.1 billion / EnCana Oil & Gas(USA)Inc, Freeport-McMoRan Oil & Gas LLC- Eagle Ford Shale Assets, United States, USD 3.1 billion / Alcoa Inc, Firth Rixson Ltd, United Kingdom, USD 3.0 billion

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

Medtronic Inc, Covidien PLC, Ireland, USD 42.7 billion / General Electric Co-Energy Assets, Alstom SA-Energy Businesses, France, USD 10.7 billion / PetSmart Inc SPV, PetSmart Inc, United States, USD 8.4 billion / Honeywell International Inc, Elster Group GmbH, Germany, USD 6.6 billion / Mylan Inc, Abbott Laboratories-Non US Markets Specialty & Branded Generics Business, Netherlands, USD 5.7 billion / Eli Lilly & Co, Novartis AG-Animal Health Division, Switzerland, USD 5.4 billion / Platform Specialty Products Corp, Arysta Lifescience Ltd, Ireland, USD 3.5 billion / Otsuka America Inc, Avanir Pharmaceuticals Inc, United States, USD 3.4 billion / Investor Group, Verallia SA, France, USD 3.2 billion / CommScope Holding Co Inc, TE Connectivity Ltd-Broadband Network Solutions, Switzerland, USD 3.1 billion / Iberdrola USA Inc, UIL Holdings Corp, United States, USD 3.0 billion

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

6 out of 190 countries

Starting a Business: 55 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 24 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 64 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 39 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 4 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 36 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 25 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 39 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 17 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 2 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

2 out of 141 countries


Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 12 / Score: 76.8 (Mostly free)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

Time zone


Total area

9,833,517 sq km


Washington, DC 


US Dollar (USD) 

Government type

Constitutional federal republic


English only 78.2%, Spanish 13.4%, Chinese 1.1%, other 7.3% (2017 est.)​


Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Mormon 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020
250.0 million 282.4 million 309.8 million 321.6 million 326.2 million*


Urban population as % of total population
1980 1990 2000 2010 2018
73.7% 75.3% 79.1% 80.8% 82.3%
Population median age

38.2 years

Population growth rate

0.8% (2018 estimate)

Life expectancy

80.1 years (2018 estimate)



% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

1.5% (last available estimate, 2016)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

41.5 (last available estimate, 2016)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 2
Civil Liberties: 1 (2019)
(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 35.7%

Mobile: 123.7%


(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

87.27 % (2017)

Mercer Cost of living index

New York: 9th
San Francisco: 16th
Los Angeles: 18th
Chicago: 37th
Honolulu: 38th
Washington: 42nd
Miami: 44th
Boston: 49th
White Plains: 56th
Houston: 59th
Dallas: 62nd
Seattle: 64th
Atlanta: 69th
Morristown: 70th
Minneapolis: 78th
Detroit: 90th
St. Louis: 94th
Pittsburgh: 97th
Cleveland: 106th
Portland: 107th
Winston-Salem: 138th


CO2 emissions

16.5 metric tons per capita (2014)

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