Central bank

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

International Reserves

USD 118.6 billion (2016)

International Monetary Fund (IMF), data retrieved January 2017

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 19,377.2 billion (2017, estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

Intl$ 19,377.2 billion (2017, estimate)

Real GDP growth
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
2.5% 2.9% 1.6% 2.2% 2.9%*


GDP per capita - current prices

USD 59,407.5 (2017, estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

Intl$ 59,407.5 (2017, estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total

15% (2019, estimate)

GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 1.1% 
  • industry: 19.4% 
  • services: 79.5%

(2016 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

2.7% (2013)

OECD, data retrieved January 2017

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018*
0.1% 1.3% 2.1% 2.4%* 1.8%*


Unemployment rate
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018*
5.3% 4.9% 4.4% 3.9% 3.7%


Household saving rates

6% (Total, 2015)

Public Debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
104.7% 106.8% 106.0% 104.3%* 106.2%*


Public Deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
-3.6% -4.3% -4.5% -5.7%* -5.6%*


Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA+

Moody's: Aaa

Standard & Poor's / Moody's (Updated January 2017)

Market value of publicly traded shares
2016 2017 2018
USD 27,352.2 billion USD 32,120.7 billion USD 30,436.3 billion
Largest companies

Berkshire Hathaway, JPMorgan Chase, Wells Fargo, Apple, ExxonMobil, Bank of America, AT&T, Citigroup, Verizon Communications, Wal-Mart Stores, Microsoft, Alphabet, Chevron, Johnson & Johnson, Comcast, Procter & Gamble, Ford Motor, IBM, UnitedHealth Group, General Motors, Pfizer, MetLife, Intel, CVS Health, Cisco Systems, General Electric, Walt Disney, Boeing, Goldman Sachs Group, Prudential Financial, Oracle, Coca-Cola, Morgan Stanley, American International Group, PepsiCo, Merck, American Express, United Technologies, US Bancorp, Walgreens Boots Alliance, Dow Chemical, Home Depot, Gilead Sciences, Capital One Financial, Medtronic, Amgen, Mondelēz International, Allergan, Honeywell International, Phillips 66, Lockheed Martin, Express Scripts, United Parcel Service, Duke Energy, Anthem, PNC Financial Services, Caterpillar, Time Warner, AbbVie, McKesson, Bank of New York Mellon, Target, Travelers, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Aetna, Qualcomm, Delta Air Lines, Union Pacific, Schlumberger, Valero Energy, Philip Morris International, Facebook, McDonald's, Exelon, Costco Wholesale, Visa, 3M, Allstate, Aflac, Lowe's, Twenty-First Century Fox, Cigna, American Airlines Group, BlackRock, NextEra Energy, Southern, Danaher, Kroger, Altria Group, Time Warner Cable, EMC, EI du Pont de Nemours, Marathon Petroleum, Abbott Laboratories,, General Dynamics, Eli Lilly, John Deere, Archer Daniels Midland, United Continental Holdings, HCA Holdings, FedEx, Nike, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Cardinal Health, Reynolds American, Hartford Financial Services, American Electric, BB&T, HP, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Raytheon, State Street, Dominion Resources, Carnival, Synchrony Financial, Northrop Grumman, Discover Financial Services, Humana, Emerson Electric, PG&E, Ameriprise Financial, Fannie Mae, Southwest Airlines, SunTrust Banks, Charles Schwab, Automatic Data, Tyson Foods, Freddie Mac, CSX, Principal Financial Group, General Mills, Biogen Idec, Progressive, Starbucks, Consolidated Edison, Texas Instruments, Lincoln National, Celgene, Edison International, Thomson Reuters, CenturyLink, Norfolk Southern, Sempra Energy, TJX Cos, Public Service Enterprise Group, MasterCard, Monsanto, PayPal, CBS, International Paper, PPL, Paccar, Las Vegas Sands, The Priceline Group, Fifth Third Bancorp, Marsh & McLennan, PPG, Illinois Tool Works, eBay, Johnson Controls, Xcel Energy, Stryker, Hilton Worldwide Holdings, Kimberly-Clark, Viacom, ConocoPhillips, Praxair, Omnicom Group, Ecolab, Ally Financial, AmerisourceBergen, Corning, Colgate-Palmolive, Level 3 Communications, Cummins, FirstEnergy, Macy's, DISH Network, Sysco, Baxter International, Becton Dickinson, Simon Property Group, Cognizant Technology, M&T Bank, Air Products & Chemicals, Waste Management, Tesoro, Whirlpool, Dollar General, Mylan, Micron Technology, Regions Financial, IntercontinentalExchange, Kinder Morgan, CME Group, Franklin Resources, Eversource Energy, Northern Trust, DTE Energy, Unum, Halliburton, Citizens Financial Group, Kellogg, Applied Materials, Best Buy, Occidental Petroleum, Bunge, Yum Brands, Constellation Brands, Stanley Black & Decker, VF, Liberty Interactive, Xerox, Broadcom, Republic Services, Western Digital, Estée Lauder, Fidelity National Information, American Tower, VMware, L Brands, Sherwin-Williams, Royal Caribbean Cruises, Loews, WEC Energy Group, KeyCorp, Freeport, Ross Stores, General Growth Properties, Voya Financial, Parker-Hannifin, AutoZone, Anadarko Petroleum, Alcoa, Textron, Prologis, Eastman Chemical, Mosaic, Marriott International, Devon Energy, Baxalta, Charter Communications, CarMax, Invesco, Baker Hughes, EOG Resources, Expedia, Kohl's, Reinsurance Group of America, O'Reilly Automotive, Lennar, Discovery Communications, Entergy, Nucor, Adobe Systems, Genuine Parts, Activision Blizzard, Welltower, TD Ameritrade Holding, Dollar Tree, Ameren, DR Horton, Alliance Data Systems, Nielsen, Markel, Weyerhaeuser, Hormel Foods, Gap, AES, DaVita, Williams, First Data, Navient, McGraw-Hill, National Oilwell Varco, CIT Group, Vornado Realty, Equity Residential, Avalonbay Communities, Lear, CMS Energy, WW Grainger, First Republic Bank, Yahoo, Hess, Huntington Bancshares, Public Storage, Campbell Soup, St Jude Medical, JM Smucker, Crown Castle International, LabCorp, Universal Health, Mohawk Industries, WestRock, Fidelity National Financial, Annaly Capital Management, Cincinnati Financial, CBRE Group, Boston Scientific, Zimmer Holdings, Newmont Mining, Boston Properties, Goodyear, C.H. Robinson Worldwide, MGM Resorts, Whole Foods Market, Bed Bath & Beyond, ConAgra Foods, Arrow Electronics, Nordstrom, Spectra Energy, Henry Schein, Avnet, Quest Diagnostics, Dr Pepper Snapple Group, Hershey, Fiserv, Rockwell Automation, WR Berkley, Lam Research, Amphenol, Raymond James Financial, Centene, Leucadia National, T Rowe Price, Ventas, Apache, Alleghany, Comerica,, SCANA, Symantec, Advance Auto Parts, Clorox, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, American Financial Group, HD Supply Holdings, Interpublic Group, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Netflix, HollyFrontier, Marathon Oil, NVIDIA, Host Hotels & Resorts, Staples, Fluor, Harley-Davidson, Moody's, Rite Aid, PVH, Genworth Financial, Western Union, Motorola Solutions, Dover, Intuit, Community Health Systems, NRG Energy, Electronic Arts, American Water Works, Roper Industries, BorgWarner, Alaska Air Group, Popular, CA, CenterPoint Energy, E-Trade Financial, Paychex, Caesars Entertainment, Rockwell Collins, Tenet Healthcare, Intuitive Surgical, Cerner, Antero Resources, Starwood Hotels, Brown-Forman, Skyworks Solutions, Monster Beverage, Analog Devices, Signature Bank, Foot Locker, Manpower, Tractor Supply, Starwood Property Trust, CDW, L-3 Communications, Wyndham Worldwide, Mead Johnson Nutrition, LKQ, Crown Holdings, AutoNation, Kimco Realty, SanDisk, Edwards Lifesciences, CF Industries Holdings, Molson Coors Brewing, Noble Energy, Assurant, Ralph Lauren, Masco, Hertz Global Holdings, Torchmark, Ingram Micro, Zoetis, Spirit AeroSystems, Expeditors International, Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings, Illumina, Hanesbrands, Pioneer Natural Resources, HCP, Aramark, JB Hunt Transport, Juniper Networks, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Jabil Circuit, Chipotle Mexican Grill, Ball, JetBlue Airways, United Rentals, News Corp, Oneok, Ametek, Newell Rubbermaid, Sealed Air, New York Community, Frontier Communications, Fastenal, Avis Budget Group, AECOM Technology, Verisk Analytics, Hasbro, Zions Bancorp, Xilinx, NASDAQ OMX Group, East West Bancorp, Old Republic International, Sears Holdings, Pinnacle West, SVB Financial Group, Mattel, Agilent Technologies, SL Green Realty, Visteon, KLA-Tencor, Harris, NiSource, Penske Automotive, Chesapeake Energy, Ambac Financial Group, AmTrust Financial Services, McCormick, Equifax, Trinity Industries, TransDigm Group, Darden Restaurants, Continental Resources, Linear Technology, Cintas, HRG Group, American Capital Agency, Huntington Ingalls Industries, UGI, Arthur J. Gallagher, PulteGroup, Quintiles Transnational, Celanese, Airgas, Waters, Kansas City Southern, Realty Income, Tech Data, Affiliated Managers Group, Tesla Motors, AGL Resources, Scripps Networks Interactive, Ingredion, World Fuel Services, FleetCor Technologies, Church & Dwight, Western Refining, Equinix, Westlake Chemical, FMC Technologies, Tiffany & Co., Concho Resources, Citrix Systems, Digital Realty Trust, Coach, Computer Sciences, Snap-on, GameStop, INTL FCStone, Alliant Energy, Cheniere Energy, EQT, Essex Property Trust, Calpine, NetApp, Packaging Corp of America, Sabre, Targa Resources Corp., Ashland, American Equity Investment, Cablevision Systems, Interactive Brokers Group, International Flavors & Fragrances, Supervalu, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Ulta Salon Cosmetcs & Fragrance, People's United Financial, Harman International, Microchip Technology, Garmin, IMS Health Holdings, MGIC Investment, Two Harbors Investment, NII Holdings, Fortune Brands Home & Security, Performance Food Group, Vereit, BOK Financial, VeriSign, Jones Lang LaSalle, Amdocs, First Niagara Financial, Office Depot, USG, Molina Healthcare, JC Penney, WellCare Health Plans, NVR, Mettler-Toledo International, CNO Financial Group, Total System Services, Cullen/Frost Bankers, Coty, Macerich, Jacobs Engineering, SYNNEX, Valspar, PBF Energy, Varian Medical Systems, Polaris Industries, Hanover Insurance Group, Ryder System, Murphy USA, XPO Logistics, Nelnet, Reliance Steel, LinkedIn, First Solar, US Steel, Dick's Sporting Goods, CR Bard, BioMarin Pharmaceutical, Huntsman, Workday, Amerco, PacWest Bancorp, First Citizens BancShares, Vulcan Materials, Columbia Pipeline Group, Dentsply Sirona, Incyte, iHeartMedia, ResMed, RR Donnelley & Sons, Synovus Financial, Sanmina-SCI, Martin Marietta Materials, Red Hat, United Therapeutics, Core-Mark Holding Company, CST Brands, Associated Banc-Corp, Autodesk, Quanta Services, Prosperity Bancshares, Wynn Resorts, Group 1 Automotive, Palo Alto Networks, Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies, Akamai Technologies, SBA Communications.

Current account balance

USD -518.5 billion (2017 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-2.7% (2017 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

12.6% (2015)


Shares in world total merchandising export

9.1% (2015)​


Shares in world total commercial services export

14.38% (2012)

Total exports

USD 1,471.0 billion (2016 estimate)

Export commodities

Agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0% (2008 estimate)

Total imports

USD 2205.0 billion (2016 estimate)

Import commodities

agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, (2008 estimate)

Exports - major partners

Canada 18.6%, Mexico 15.7%, China 7.7%, Japan 4.2% (2015)

Imports - major partners

China 21.5%, Canada 13.2%, Mexico 13.2%, Japan 5.9%, Germany 5.5% (2015)

FDI inflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 471,792 million USD 277,258 million USD 251,814 million
FDI outflows
2016 2017 2018
USD 289,261 million USD 300,378 million USD -63,550 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2015 2016 2017 2018
USD 127,879 million USD 78,382 million USD 115,333 million USD 253,354 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

Verizon Communications Inc, Verizon Wireless Inc, United States, USD 130.3 billion / Walgreen Co, Alliance Boots GmbH, Switzerland, USD 15.3 billion / Burger King Worldwide Inc, Tim Hortons Inc, Canada, USD 13.4 billion / SAP America Inc, Concur Technologies Inc, United States, USD 9.1 billion / Blackstone Group LP, Gates Corp, United States, USD 5.4 billion / Microsoft Corp, Nokia Oyj-Devices & Services Business, Finland, USD 5.0 billion / Enterprise Products Partners LP, Oiltanking Partners LP, United States, USD 4.6 billion / Fiat North America LLC, Chrysler Group LLC, United States, USD 3.7 billion / Abbott Laboratories, CFR Pharmaceutical SA, Chile, USD 3.3 billion / Investor Group, Nets Holding A/S, Denmark, USD 3.2 billion / Archer Daniels Midland Co, WILD Flavors GmbH, Switzerland, USD 3.1 billion / EnCana Oil & Gas(USA)Inc, Freeport-McMoRan Oil & Gas LLC- Eagle Ford Shale Assets, United States, USD 3.1 billion / Alcoa Inc, Firth Rixson Ltd, United Kingdom, USD 3.0 billion

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

Medtronic Inc, Covidien PLC, Ireland, USD 42.7 billion / General Electric Co-Energy Assets, Alstom SA-Energy Businesses, France, USD 10.7 billion / PetSmart Inc SPV, PetSmart Inc, United States, USD 8.4 billion / Honeywell International Inc, Elster Group GmbH, Germany, USD 6.6 billion / Mylan Inc, Abbott Laboratories-Non US Markets Specialty & Branded Generics Business, Netherlands, USD 5.7 billion / Eli Lilly & Co, Novartis AG-Animal Health Division, Switzerland, USD 5.4 billion / Platform Specialty Products Corp, Arysta Lifescience Ltd, Ireland, USD 3.5 billion / Otsuka America Inc, Avanir Pharmaceuticals Inc, United States, USD 3.4 billion / Investor Group, Verallia SA, France, USD 3.2 billion / CommScope Holding Co Inc, TE Connectivity Ltd-Broadband Network Solutions, Switzerland, USD 3.1 billion / Iberdrola USA Inc, UIL Holdings Corp, United States, USD 3.0 billion

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking: 8 out of 190 countries (2017)


Starting a business: 51 out of 190 countries

Enforcing Contracts: 20 out of 190 countries

Registering Property: 36 out of 190 countries

Getting Credit: 2 out of 190 countries

Protecting Minority Investors: 41 out of 190 countries

Trading Across Borders: 35 out of 190 countries

Paying Taxes: 36 out of 190 countries

Dealing with Construction Permits: 39 out of 190 countries

Getting Electricity: 36 out of 190 countries

Resolving Insolvency: 5 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

3 out of 138 countries


Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 11 / Score: 75.44 (Mostly free) (2016)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

Time zone


Total area

9,826,675 sq km


Washington, DC 


US Dollar (USD) 

Government type

Constitutional federal republic


English 79.2%, Spanish 12.9%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 3.3%, other 0.9% (2011 est.)

Note: data represents the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 31 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii


Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Mormon 1.6%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, other Christian 0.9%, Jewish 1.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2017
250.0 million 282.4 million 309.8 million 321.6 million 326.2 million


Urban population as % of total population
1980 1990 2000 2010 2015
73.7% 75.3% 79.1% 80.8% 81.6%
Population median age

37.9 years (2016 estimate)

Population growth rate

0.81% (2016 estimate)

Life expectancy

79.8 years (2016 estimate)



% of population living on less than $3.10 a day


Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

41.1 (2013)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Political Rights: 1
Civil Liberties: 1 (2017)                         

(1 represents the most free, 7 the least free rating)

Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed 38.40%   Mobile 117.59% (2015)
(fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

74.45% (2015)

Mercer Cost of living index

New York City: 11th
San Francisco: 26th
Los Angeles: 27th
hicago: 34th
Honolulu: 37th
Washington: 38th
Miami: 45th
Boston: 47th
White Plains: 61st
Dallas: 62nd
Morristown: 71st
Houston: 75th
Atlanta: 78th
Seattle: 83rd
Minneapolis: 91st
Detroit: 103rd
St. Louis: 108th
Cleaveland: 110th
Pittsburgh: 112th
Portland: 117th
Winston Salem: 147th


CO2 emissions

16.4 (2013)

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