Central bank

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

International Reserves

USD 251.57 billion (2021)

Gross Domestic Product - GDP

USD 22,939.58 billion (2021 estimate)

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)

USD 22,939.58 billion (2021 estimate)

Real GDP growth
2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
2.5% 2.9% 1.6% -3.4% 6.0%*


GDP per capita - current prices

USD 69,375.38 (2021 estimate)

GDP per capita - PPP

USD 69,375.38 (2021 estimate)

GDP (PPP) - share of world total

USD 15.86% (2021 estimate)

GDP - composition by sector
  • agriculture: 0.9% 
  • industry: 18.2% 
  • services: 77.3%

(2017 estimate)

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (% of GDP)

3.1% (2019)

OECD, retrieved January 2022

2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
2.1% 2.4% 1.8% 1.2% 4.3%*


Unemployment rate
2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
4.4% 3.9% 3.7% 8.1% 5.4%*


Household saving rates

17.1% (2020)

Public Debt (General government gross debt as a % of GDP)
2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
106% 107.1% 108.5% 133.9% 133.3%*


Public Deficit (General government net lending/borrowing as a % of GDP)
2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
-2.6% -3.2% -3.5% -12.7% -9.2%*


Government bond ratings

Standard & Poor's: AA+

Moody's: Aaa

Standard & Poor's / Moody's 

Market value of publicly traded shares

USD 40,720 billion (2020)

Largest companies

JPMorgan Chase, Berkshire Hathaway, Apple, Bank of America, Amazon, Alphabet, Microsoft, Citigroup, Walmart, Wells Fargo, Verizon Communications, UnitedHealth Group, Comcast, Goldman Sachs Group, Morgan Stanley, Facebook, Johnson & Johnson, Intel, CVS Health, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Motors, Cigna, Pfizer, IBM, MetLife, Home Depot, PepsiCo, Oracle, AbbVie, Cisco Systems, British American Tobacco, Merck & Co., US Bancorp, Anthem, Charter Communications, Dell Technologies, American Express, Truist Financial, Coca-Cola, Costco Wholesale, Capital One, PNC Financial Services, FedEx, Abbott Laboratories, Visa, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Lowe's, BlackRock, Caterpillar, Lockheed Martin, Target, Deere & Company, Honeywell International, Charles Schwab, Broadcom, Amgen, Allstate, PayPal, Danaher, NextEra Energy,, United Parcel Service, Progressive, Southern Company, Philip Morris International, Mondelez International, Union Pacific, 3M, Exelon, Eli Lilly, Aflac, HCA Healthcare, Duke Energy, Bank of New York Mellon, Travelers, McDonald's, Nike, Qualcomm, Centene, Micron Technology, General Dynamics, Altria Group, Humana, Netflix, Northrop Grumman, Kroger, HP, Mastercard, Dow, Archer Daniels Midland, American Electric, Becton Dickinson, Automatic Data Processing, NVIDIA, Tesla, Dollar General, State Street, Fiserv, Sempra Energy, ViacomCBS, Adobe, Fannie Mae, Applied Materials, IntercontinentalExchange, AT&T, Tyson Foods, Marsh & McLennan, Ameriprise Financial, Hartford Financial Services, ExxonMobil, Freddie Mac, CRH, Stryker, CSX, Lennar, Chevron, General Mills, Newmont Mining, Discover Financial Services, Texas Instruments, Cardinal Health, Walt Disney, Principal Financial Group, Norfolk Southern, Synchrony Financial, Keurig Dr Pepper, L3Harris Technologies, BAE Systems, Waste Management, Xcel Energy, Raytheon Technologies, Emerson Electric, Boeing, Sherwin-Williams, VMware, Ally Financial, American Tower, Ford Motor, Starbucks, Carrier Global, Bristol Myers Squibb, Cummins, D.R. Horton, Best Buy, Prudential Financial, Fifth Third Bank, CME Group, Public Service Enterprise Group, Consolidated Edison, Kimberly-Clark, Kraft Heinz Company, Paccar, American International Group, DTE Energy, Colgate-Palmolive, Biogen, DISH Network, Walgreens, Air Products & Chemicals, eBay, Freeport-McMoRan, Citizens Bank (Rhode IsIand), Edison International, Dollar Tree, Entergy, Lam Research, The Estée Lauder Companies, Corteva, KeyCorp, Constellation Brands, Activision Blizzard, Marathon Petroleum, Illinois Tool Works, Eversource Energy, Parker-Hannifin, Stanley Black & Decker, Gilead Sciences, Cognizant, PPG, Northern Trust, McKesson, Prologis, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, M&T Bank, Dominion Energy, LabCorp, Baxter International, Regions Financial, Crown Castle International, Phillips 66, PPL, FirstEnergy, ConocoPhillips, Lincoln National, Fox, Fidelity National Information, First Republic Bank, DuPont de Nemours, Valero Energy, WEC Energy Group, Advanced Micro Devices, Global Payments, CBRE Group, Discovery, Fidelity National Financial, AutoZone, Republic Services, TJX Cos, AmerisourceBergen, SVB Financial Group, Nucor, Bunge, Intuit, CarMax, International Paper, Omnicom Group, Raymond James Financial, Kellogg, Rocket Companies, PG&E, Albertsons, Schlumberger, Corning, Analog Devices, Whirlpool, O'Reilly Automotive, Occidental Petroleum, S&P Global, Conagra Brands, Kinder Morgan, Markel, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Delta Air Lines, Simon Property Group, Uber, Sysco, Zoetis, Huntington Bank, Roper Technologies, CDW, Cincinnati Financial, Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Ball, Otis Worldwide, Amphenol, Unum, Altice USA, Equitable Holdings, United Rentals, United Airlines Holdings, Gallagher, Ameren, T Rowe Price, Hershey, Oneok, Boston Scientific, Fortive, Lumen Technologies, EOG Resources, Moody's, CMS Energy, American Financial Group, KLA, Jefferies Financial, Reinsurance Group of America, Weyerhaeuser, American Airlines Group, Quest Diagnostics, Hormel Foods, Loews, Baker Hughes Company, Southwest Airlines, Marriott International, IQVIA, Viatris, Cintas, Ecolab, L Brands, Motorola Solutions, Equinix, NASDAQ, Clorox, PulteGroup, WW Grainger, Rockwell Automation, Western Digital, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Tractor Supply, Molina Healthcare, DaVita, Electronic Arts, Williams, Align Technology, American Water Works, Invesco, Intuitive Surgical, Monster Beverage, Autodesk, JM Smucker, WR Berkley, Equity Residential, Crown Holdings, Public Storage, Qurate Retail Group, Expeditors International, Universal Health Services, WestRock, Arrow Electronics, Cheniere Energy, Yum! Brands, Alexandria Real Estate Equities, Booking Holdings, First Horizon, Agilent Technologies, AES, Mosaic, AvalonBay Communities, Digital Realty Trust, Celanese, Franklin Resources, Signature Bank, Boston Properties, Fastenal, NVR, Vistra Energy, Ross Stores, Halliburton, Edwards Lifesciences, Leidos, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Zoom Video Communications, Campbell Soup, Assurant, Jacobs, Paychex, J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Zimmer Biomet, Zions Bancorp, Square, C.H. Robinson, LKQ, Tenet Healthcare, Cooper Companies, Skyworks Solutions, Brown-Forman, McCormick, Carnival, Illumina, Wayfair, Evergy, Dover, Synopsys, Eastman Chemical, Brighthouse Financial, Ametek, Pioneer Natural Resources, Mohawk Industries, Cerner, Berry Global Group, Hologic, East West Bancorp, BorgWarner, PennyMac Financial Services, Schroders, VICI Properties, XPO Logistics, Comerica, IDEXX Laboratories, Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies, Royalty Pharma, Globe Life, Western Alliance Bancorp., Masco, American Equity Investment, Liberty Broadband, Voya Financial, Penske Automotive, Cadence Design, TransDigm Group, Verisk Analytics, MSCI, ResMed, Copart, Ventas, Genuine Parts, Church & Dwight, Microchip Technology, Genworth Financial, VeriSign, Old Dominion Freight Line, Welltower, MGM Resorts, VF, Maxim Integrated Products, Xilinx, CenterPoint Energy, Quanta Services, Realty Income, , Community Health Systems, SLM, Textron, Vulcan Materials, Popular, Interpublic Group, DXC Technology, Alliant Energy, Kansas City Southern, NetApp, Annaly Capital Management, Fortinet, Caesars Entertainment, Royal Caribbean Group, New York Community Bancorp, International Flavors & Fragrances, Navient, Chewy, NRG Energy, Zebra Technologies, Booz Allen Hamilton Holding, First Citizens Bank (NC), Fortune Brands Home & Security, Ansys, Huntington Ingalls Industries, Veeva Systems, BioMarin Pharmaceutical, Old Republic International, Atmos Energy, Macy's, Coinbase, Equifax, StoneX Group, Alleghany, Gap, AutoNation, Essex Property Trust, Expedia Group, AGCO, OneMain Holdings, News Corp, BJ's Wholesale Club, PerkinElmer, Lear, DCC, ServiceNow, Broadridge Financial, AirBnB, Qorvo, Prosperity Bancshares, Hilton, Kohl's, Snap, UGI, Packaging Corp of America, BOK Financial, Teladoc Health, Take-Two Interactive Software, Henry Schein, Akamai Technologies, Waters, Healthpeak Properties, Twitter, Flagstar Bancorp, Starwood Property Trust, Moderna, Dick's Sporting Goods, Snowflake, Ubiquiti, Synovus Financial, Amerco, Twilio, Commerce Bank, AGNC Investment, Workday, Extra Space Storage, First American Financial, Citrix Systems, Pinnacle West, FMC, Pinterest, US Foods, Roku, CrowdStrike, United Natural Foods, DoorDash, Cannae Holdings, Etsy, Hess, Performance Food Group, Valley Natl Bancorp, DocuSign, Western Union, Interactive Brokers Group, Westlake Chemical, Rite Aid, Stifel Financial, Snap-on, Aramark, Newell Brands, LPL Financial Holdings, Roblox, American National Group, Air Lease, Medical Properties Trust, Trimble, RPM International, Ingersoll Rand, Palantir Technologies, Domino's Pizza, Murphy USA, Match Group, AECOM Technology, Reliance Steel, Goodyear, World Fuel Services, Burlington Stores, West Pharmaceutical Services, Avantor, Darden Restaurants, EPAM Systems, CoStar Group, Palo Alto Networks, Okta, W.P. Carey, Peloton Interactive, Ulta Beauty, Invitation Homes, Manpower, Trade Desk, Carvana, Avnet, Big Lots, Generac Holdings Inc., Zillow Group, Marvell Technology Group, Cullen/Frost Bankers, Core-Mark Holding, Kimco Realty, SBA Communications, Albemarle, Brown & Brown, CIT Group, RingCentral, Fluor, Thor Industries, Scotts Miracle-Gro, Toll Brothers, Teledyne Technologies, Tenneco, Teleflex, Amdocs, Builders FirstSource, PBF Energy, IDEX, Tronox, Unity Software, Datadog, Wintrust Financial, Howmet Aerospace, TransUnion, Nexstar Media Group, Zscaler, TCF Financial, Charles River Labs, Slack Technologies, Penn National Gaming, Pinnacle Bank, HubSpot, Paycom

Current account balance

USD -796.1 billion (2021 estimate)

Current account balance by percentage of GDP

-3.5% (2021 estimate)

Exports as percent of GDP (Exports of goods and services)

10.1% (2020)


Shares in world total merchandising export

8.1% (2020)


Shares in world total commercial services export

13.5% (2020)

Total exports

USD 2,140.8 billion (2020 estimate)

Export commodities

Refined petroleum, crude petroleum, cars and vehicle parts, integrated circuits, aircraft (2019)

Total imports

USD 2,811.0 billion (2020 estimate)

Import commodities

Cars, crude petroleum, computers, broadcasting equipment, packaged medicines (2019)

Exports - major partners

Canada 17%, Mexico 16%, China 7%, Japan 5% (2019)

Imports - major partners

China 18%, Mexico 15%, Canada 13%, Japan 6%, Germany 5% (2019)

FDI inflows
2018 2019 2020
USD 223,401 million USD 261,412 million USD 156,321 million
FDI outflows
2018 2019 2020
USD -194.412 million USD 93,552 million USD 92,811 million
Value of cross-border M&A, by country of purchaser
2017 2018 2019 2020
USD 115,333 million USD 253,354 million USD 102,913 million USD 125,192 million
Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2014

Verizon Communications Inc, Verizon Wireless Inc, United States, USD 130.3 billion / Walgreen Co, Alliance Boots GmbH, Switzerland, USD 15.3 billion / Burger King Worldwide Inc, Tim Hortons Inc, Canada, USD 13.4 billion / SAP America Inc, Concur Technologies Inc, United States, USD 9.1 billion / Blackstone Group LP, Gates Corp, United States, USD 5.4 billion / Microsoft Corp, Nokia Oyj-Devices & Services Business, Finland, USD 5.0 billion / Enterprise Products Partners LP, Oiltanking Partners LP, United States, USD 4.6 billion / Fiat North America LLC, Chrysler Group LLC, United States, USD 3.7 billion / Abbott Laboratories, CFR Pharmaceutical SA, Chile, USD 3.3 billion / Investor Group, Nets Holding A/S, Denmark, USD 3.2 billion / Archer Daniels Midland Co, WILD Flavors GmbH, Switzerland, USD 3.1 billion / EnCana Oil & Gas(USA)Inc, Freeport-McMoRan Oil & Gas LLC- Eagle Ford Shale Assets, United States, USD 3.1 billion / Alcoa Inc, Firth Rixson Ltd, United Kingdom, USD 3.0 billion

Cross-border M&A deals worth over $3 billion completed in 2015

Medtronic Inc, Covidien PLC, Ireland, USD 42.7 billion / General Electric Co-Energy Assets, Alstom SA-Energy Businesses, France, USD 10.7 billion / PetSmart Inc SPV, PetSmart Inc, United States, USD 8.4 billion / Honeywell International Inc, Elster Group GmbH, Germany, USD 6.6 billion / Mylan Inc, Abbott Laboratories-Non US Markets Specialty & Branded Generics Business, Netherlands, USD 5.7 billion / Eli Lilly & Co, Novartis AG-Animal Health Division, Switzerland, USD 5.4 billion / Platform Specialty Products Corp, Arysta Lifescience Ltd, Ireland, USD 3.5 billion / Otsuka America Inc, Avanir Pharmaceuticals Inc, United States, USD 3.4 billion / Investor Group, Verallia SA, France, USD 3.2 billion / CommScope Holding Co Inc, TE Connectivity Ltd-Broadband Network Solutions, Switzerland, USD 3.1 billion / Iberdrola USA Inc, UIL Holdings Corp, United States, USD 3.0 billion

Best countries for doing business

Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm.

Overall ranking:

6 out of 190 countries

Starting a Business: 55 out of 190 countries
Dealing with Construction Permits: 24 out of 190 countries
Getting Electricity: 64 out of 190 countries
Registering Property: 39 out of 190 countries
Getting Credit: 4 out of 190 countries
Protecting Minority Investors: 36 out of 190 countries
Paying Taxes: 25 out of 190 countries
Trading across Borders: 39 out of 190 countries
Enforcing Contracts: 17 out of 190 countries
Resolving Insolvency: 2 out of 190 countries

Global competitiveness ranking

Ranking: 25 / Score: 72.1 (Mostly Free)

Index of Economic Freedom

Ranking: 12 / Score: 76.8 (Mostly free)

(100=totally free 0=totally repressed)

Time zone


Total area

9,833,517 sq km


Washington, DC 


US Dollar (USD) 

Government type

Constitutional federal republic


English only 78.2%, Spanish 13.4%, Chinese 1.1%, other 7.3% (2017 est.) / note: data represent the language spoken at home; the US has no official national language, but English has acquired official status in 32 of the 50 states; Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii, and 20 indigenous languages are official in Alaska


Protestant 46.5%, Roman Catholic 20.8%, Jewish 1.9%, Church of Jesus Christ 1.6%, other Christian 0.9%, Muslim 0.9%, Jehovah's Witness 0.8%, Buddhist 0.7%, Hindu 0.7%, other 1.8%, unaffiliated 22.8%, don't know/refused 0.6% (2014 est.)

Total population
1990 2000 2010 2015 2020
249.6 million 282.2 million 309.3 million 320.7 million 329.5 million*


Urban population as % of total population
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
70.0% 75.3% 73.7% 79.1% 82.7%
Population median age

38.5 years

Population growth rate

0.69% (2022 est.)

Life expectancy

80.6 years (2022 estimate)



% of population living on less than $3.10 a day

1% (last available estimate, 2019)

Inequality of wealth distribution (Gini index)

41.5 (last available estimate, 2016)

(0=perfect equality, 100=absolute inequality)

Freedom House rating

Total score: 83/100

Status: Free

Political Rights: 32/40

Civil Liberties: 51/60 (2022)

Total telephone subscribers as % of population

Fixed: 30.7%

Mobile: 106.2% (2020) (fixed-telephone subscribers and mobile-cellular subscribers)

Internet users as % of total population

90.9% (2020)

Mercer Cost of living index

New York: 9th
San Francisco: 16th
Los Angeles: 18th
Chicago: 37th
Honolulu: 38th
Washington: 42nd
Miami: 44th
Boston: 49th
White Plains: 56th
Houston: 59th
Dallas: 62nd
Seattle: 64th
Atlanta: 69th
Morristown: 70th
Minneapolis: 78th
Detroit: 90th
St. Louis: 94th
Pittsburgh: 97th
Cleveland: 106th
Portland: 107th
Winston-Salem: 138th


CO2 emissions

15.2 metric tons per capita (2018)

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