Developing Asian and African countries lead with fastest GDP growth in the world. 

Author: Luca Ventura
Project Coordinator: Pham Binh
Guyana combines natural beauty with impressive economic growth.

You might have never heard of it, but Nauru—a tiny island in the South Pacific Ocean—was until very recently the fastest growing economy on Earth. The reason? Bird poop. Ever since its independence in 1968, the country's wealth was based on fossilized bird guano, an exceptional fertilizer. Then the guano supply almost entirely dried up,  and now Nauru survives by virtue of the support it receives from Australia, which has built on the island a detention center for its asylum seekers. Such sudden injections of foreign funds can boost dramatically—at least on paper—a country’s output, but the truth is that Nauru is currently facing financial ruin.

The story of this island is a cautionary tale about the perils of relying on just one source of income. The people of another quite small nation, Guyana—215,000 square kilometers bordering with Brazil, Suriname, Venezuela and the North Atlantic Ocean—could learn a thing or two from it.

The IMF has anticipated that in 2020 the country's economy—unlike much of the world, which will be in recession—will grow by an astounding 51% from just 4.6% in 2019. How is that possible? Last December, following one of the largest offshore crude discoveries in decades, Guyana officially became an oil-producer. With a production that by 2025 is estimated to reach of 750,000 barrels per day, the windfall could transform the nation from one of the poorest in Latin America into one of the richest per capita. 

Experts have already warned of the so-called "resource curse." Too many times in the past, the mismanagement of revenue from oil extraction has been linked slow economic growth, corruption, authoritarianism and a whole array of social maladies—Venezuela, home of the world's largest oil reserves, comes to mind. Not only that, Guyana's near term-growth projections could be a little too optimistic. While the economists at the IMF downgraded their 2019 estimates in response to the coronavirus pandemic, what they could not predict is that—days after releasing their revised numbers—the already historically low oil prices would plunge even further. As a consequence of demand collapsing, producers found themselves unable to sell their stockpiles and forced to pay their buyers to take the barrels they could not store. Prices are already stabilizing and rebounding, but one thing is sure: for many Guyanese citizens the dream of becoming super-rich is for now on hold.

The examples of both Nauru and Guyana tell us that static snapshots of a country’s GDP figures can be misleading, as many once-fast growing economies have seen quick and dramatic downfalls. Ethiopia, Turkmenistan, Rwanda, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, China, Tajikistan, Bangladesh, Laos: these are some of the nations that have shown the most sustained and robust GDP growth among close to 200 routinely surveyed by the IMF.

Over the past two decades, Ethiopia has made improvements to its infrastructure and encouraged greater private-sector involvement in an attempt to transform its agriculture-based economy into a manufacturing hub. Turkmenistan’s autocratic government has so far relied on its natural gas resources but dwindling commodity prices, lack of diversification and an unfriendly business climate paint the picture of a country now facing an economic crisis. Exports of cotton, natural gas and gold provide significant revenues to Uzbekistan, but its government has done little to modernize the economy. While facing slow growth this year, China is expected to bounce back strongly in 2021—Mongolia, Bangladesh and Laos, in the meantime, have taken a page from its playbook and turned themselves into thriving manufacturing hubs. Rwanda, with its extensive economic development and poverty reduction programs, shows what efficient and democratic political institutions can do to a country once ravaged by civil war and genocide: turn it into an economic miracle.

It is not too hard to see which nations have made plans for long and widespread growth, and which ones draw on finite resources and a business as usual-ways of doing things. It will be interesting to see how they all fare 10 years from now.

The Gross Domestic Product of a country can be defined as the total monetary value of the goods and services produced within its borders in a year. GDP growth is expressed as a percent. The average growth rate has been calculated using the geometric mean to obtain a 10-year equivalent rate.


GDP Growth by Country (%)

Country 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Avg Change
Guyana 5.437 5.039 5.018 3.898 3.055 3.356 2.134 4.138 4.663 52.768 8.951
Ethiopia 11.4 8.7 9.9 10.3 10.4 8 10.21 7.703 8.967 3.237 8.882
Nauru 10.778 10.367 30.969 27.229 3.418 3.02 -5.496 5.703 0.959 -1.675 8.527
Turkmenistan 14.72 11.051 10.163 10.346 6.453 6.2 6.47 6.153 6.347 1.845 7.975
Rwanda 7.968 8.639 4.718 6.157 8.873 5.982 6.12 8.606 10.063 3.5 7.063
Mongolia 17.291 12.32 11.649 7.885 2.38 1.168 5.337 7.247 5.099 -1 6.938
China 9.5 7.9 7.8 7.3 6.9 6.849 6.947 6.75 6.11 1.181 6.724
Tajikistan 7.4 7.5 7.4 6.7 6 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.5 1 6.48
Bangladesh 6.494 6.26 6.038 6.314 6.842 7.202 7.584 8.014 7.879 2.019 6.465
Lao P.D.R. 7.986 7.805 8.026 7.621 7.27 7.023 6.832 6.308 4.72 0.723 6.431
Côte d'Ivoire -4.857 10.864 9.272 8.794 8.843 7.179 7.36 6.793 6.9 2.7 6.384
Cambodia 7.07 7.313 7.357 7.143 7.036 6.863 6.997 7.533 7.045 -1.587 6.277
Myanmar 5.471 6.486 7.899 8.2 7.473 6.408 5.75 6.405 6.5 1.799 6.239
Tanzania 7.905 5.141 6.782 6.732 6.161 6.867 6.773 6.951 6.269 2.014 6.159
India 6.638 5.456 6.386 7.41 7.996 8.256 7.044 6.12 4.228 1.871 6.14
Vietnam 6.413 5.505 5.554 6.422 6.987 6.69 6.94 7.076 7.017 2.7 6.13
Djibouti 7.293 4.842 5.001 7.062 7.696 6.653 5.403 8.408 7.498 1 6.086
Uzbekistan 7.785 7.376 7.585 7.179 7.448 6.094 4.462 5.4 5.6 1.8 6.073
Ghana 14.198 8.504 7.19 2.897 2.178 3.448 8.143 6.263 6.113 1.497 6.042
Guinea 5.615 5.915 3.934 3.708 3.813 10.828 10.338 6.181 5.645 2.92 5.89
Philippines 3.66 6.684 7.064 6.145 6.067 6.884 6.678 6.244 5.905 0.648 5.598
Bhutan 9.866 6.495 3.582 3.968 6.221 7.408 6.322 3.734 5.335 2.671 5.560
Ireland 0.339 0.227 1.352 8.527 25.121 3.678 8.155 8.307 5.543 -6.781 5.447
Panama 11.314 9.779 6.903 5.067 5.733 4.953 5.599 3.692 3.006 -2.05 5.4
Niger 2.365 10.6 5.556 6.564 4.368 5.689 4.998 7.005 5.829 0.953 5.394
Niger 2.365 10.6 5.566 6.564 4.368 5.689 4.998 7.005 5.829 0.953 5.394
Burkina Faso 6.623 6.453 5.793 4.327 3.921 5.959 6.156 6.821 5.689 1.996 5.374
Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.875 7.087 8.482 9.47 6.916 2.4 3.727 5.816 4.381 -2.239 5.291
Togo 6.398 6.544 6.112 5.921 5.743 5.559 4.357 4.91 5.3 1 5.184
Kenya 6.112 4.563 5.879 5.357 5.718 5.879 4.863 6.32 5.626 1.01 5.133
Mozambique 7.404 7.258 6.964 7.399 6.723 3.824 3.741 3.428 2.224 2.2 5.117
Sengal 1.458 5.117 2.822 6.614 6.367 6.356 7.407 6.363 5.287 2.992 5.078
Malta 1.359 2.794 4.839 8.791 10.858 5.83 6.471 7.314 4.384 -2.814 4.983
Benin 2.964 4.811 7.191 6.358 1.778 3.34 5.672 6.697 6.397 4.519 4.973
Indonesia 6.17 6.03 5.557 5.007 4.876 5.033 5.07 5.17 5.025 0.499 4.844
Dominican Republic 3.761 2.869 3.554 7.213 6.509 6.983 4.722 7.015 5.071 -0.965 4.673
Nepal 3.422 4.781 4.129 5.989 3.323 0.589 8.223 6.658 7.051 2.509 4.667
Maldives 8.567 2.517 7.281 7.33 2.885 6.338 6.804 6.889 5.657 -8.074 4.619
Uganda 6.821 2.24 4.714 4.561 5.67 2.323 5.026 6.331 4.92 3.52 4.613
Turkey 11.113 4.79 8.491 5.167 6.086 3.184 7.471 2.827 0.937 -4.998 4.507
Malaysia 5.293 5.474 4.694 6.007 5.007 4.45 5.742 4.741 4.33 -1.7 4.404
Sri Lanka 8.405 9.145 3.396 4.961 5.008 4.487 3.578 3.306 2.283 -0.536 4.403
Iraq 7.546 13.936 7.628 0.738 2.537 15.199 -2.495 -0.563 3.914 -4.723 4.372
Papua New Guinea 1.108 4.657 3.825 13.544 9.484 4.078 3.538 -0.849 5.026 -0.961 4.345
Sierra Leone 6.312 15.178 20.72 4.555 -20.493 6.354 3.771 3.458 5.124 -2.314 4.267
Eritrea 25.71 1.886 -10.456 30.394 -20.621 7.391 -10.015 13.032 3.836 0.109 4.181
Armenia 4.7 7.134 3.412 3.607 3.254 0.195 7.518 5.238 7.597 -1.479 4.118
Cameroon 4.129 4.543 5.404 5.884 5.651 4.648 3.549 4.062 3.747 -1.215 4.04
Mali 2.656 -0.703 2.201 6.775 6.623 5.946 5.037 5.177 5.1 1.532 4.034
Bolivia 5.204 5.122 6.796 5.461 4.857 4.264 4.195 4.224 2.8 -2.9 4.002
Georgia 7.358 6.369 3.621 4.431 3.023 2.906 4.842 4.843 5.148 -3.999 3.854
Tuvala 7.476 -3.885 4.91 1.178 9.23 5.885 4.6 3.662 6 -0.953 3.81
Kyrgyz Republic 5.956 -0.088 10.915 4.024 3.876 4.336 4.74 3.459 4.468 -4.044 3.764
Afghanistan 6.479 13.968 5.683 2.697 0.988 2.161 2.889 2.664 3.037 -3.007 3.756
Pakistan 3.624 3.837 3.683 4.053 4.058 4.563 5.219 5.528 3.294 -1.547 3.631
Egypt 1.765 2.226 3.302 2.916 4.372 4.347 4.077 5.314 5.558 1.952 3.583
Malawi 4.854 1.886 5.2 5.7 2.95 2.27 4 3.17 4.5 1 3.533
Solomon Islands 13.196 4.555 3.018 2.25 2.542 3.221 3.694 3.863 1.24 -2.07 3.551
Zambia 5.565 7.598 5.057 4.698 2.92 3.757 3.524 4.035 1.52 -3.507 3.517
Kazakhstan 7.4 4.8 6 4.2 1.2 1.1 4.1 4.1 4.4 -2.53 3.487
Guinea-Bissau 8.085 -1.713 3.256 0.965 6.134 5.307 5.789 3.8 4.6 -1.5 3.372
Botswana 6.048 4.456 11.344 4.149 -1.698 4.304 2.904 4.479 2.966 -5.379 3.357
Mauritania 4.173 4.47 4.151 4.275 5.376 1.261 3.497 2.115 5.861 -1.986 3.319
Moldova 5.818 -0.59 9.044 5 -0.338 4.409 4.691 4.002 3.58 -3 3.262
Paraguay 4.249 -0.539 8.417 4.861 3.08 4.313 4.954 3.681 0.2 -1 3.222
Peru 6.452 5.951 5.837 2.394 3.274 4.05 2.475 3.969 2.162 -4.534 3.203
Gabon 7.092 5.251 5.517 4.435 3.879 2.091 0.499 0.846 3.402 -1.196 3.182
Qatar 13.375 4.687 4.41 3.979 3.658 2.131 1.58 1.493 0.066 -4.345 3.103
Madagascar 1.578 3.011 2.3 3.132 3.933 3.933 3.933 4.565 4.758 0.39 3.0
Kiribati 1.595 4.713 4.215 -0.698 10.405 5.13 0.897 2.313 2.297 0.001 3.087
Singapore 6.338 4.462 4.837 3.938 2.989 3.243 4.337 3.438 0.733 3.085
Honduras 3.836 4.129 2.792 3.058 3.84 3.893 4.843 3.697 2.651 -2.35 3.039
Colombia 6.948 3.912 5.134 4.499 2.956 2.087 1.359 2.515 3.322 -2.386 3.035
Romania 2.007 2.007 3.515 3.411 3.872 4.801 7.111 4.437 4.078 -5 3.031
Zimbabwe 14.197 16.658 1.975 2.383 1.791 0.742 4.704 3.497 -8.276 -7.383 3.029
Seychelles 5.379 3.68 6.018 4.531 4.911 4.563 4.376 3.754 3.901 -10.835 3.028
Guatemala 4.445 3.148 3.485 4.444 4.092 2.676 3.003 3.056 3.57 -1.963 2.997
São Tomé and Príncipe 4.398 3.142 4.815 6.55 3.798 4.172 3.871 3.028 1.302 -6 2.908
Costa Rica 4.307 4.797 2.269 3.515 3.632 4.246 3.86 2.66 2.084 -3.292 2.808
Poland 5.017 1.608 1.392 3.318 3.839 3.064 4.938 5.148 4.095 -4.579 2.784
Oman 2.565 9.104 5.103 1.423 4.658 4.897 0.346 1.764 0.469 -2.844 2.749
Saudi Arabia 9.997 5.411 2.699 3.652 4.106 1.671 -0.742 2.434 0.331 -2.283 2.728
Comoros 4.144 3.168 4.466 2.107 1.299 3.457 4.177 3.639 1.866 -1.16 2.716
Kosovo 4.377 2.81 3.442 1.222 4.103 4.063 4.226 3.816 4 -5 2.71
Morocco 5.246 3.01 4.535 2.669 4.55 1.047 4.235 2.99 2.203 -3.744 2.674
Estonia 7.444 3.125 1.346 2.987 1.845 2.632 5.749 4.761 4.334 -7.5 2.672
Mauritius 4.077 3.496 3.36 3.745 3.553 3.838 3.814 3.761 3.482 -6.8 2.632
Israel 4.879 2.37 4.269 3.778 2.312 3.982 3.575 3.441 3.503 -6.288 2.582
Bahrain 1.984 3.728 5.416 4.351 2.863 3.473 3.814 1.955 1.819 -3.59 2.581
Fiji 2.7 1.411 4.734 5.604 4.664 2.51 5.425 3.526 0.5 -5.8 2.527
Lithuania 6.025 3.834 3.558 3.508 2.033 2.556 4.248 3.644 3.914 -8.086 2.523
South Korea 3.686 2.403 3.165 3.202 2.809 2.947 3.16 2.665 2.033 -1.178 2.489
The Gambia -8.13 5.242 2.873 -1.407 4.058 1.943 4.823 6.547 5.975 2.5 2.442
Iceland 1.882 1.296 4.134 2.083 4.749 6.627 4.546 3.814 1.919 -7.206 2.384
Hungary 1.819 -1.472 1.963 4.195 3.846 2.2 4.323 5.094 4.928 -3.1 2.38
Nigeria 4.887 4.279 5.394 6.31 2.653 -1.617 0.806 1.923 2.208 -3.41 2.343
Grenada 0.765 -1.155 2.351 7.342 6.445 3.74 4.439 4.141 3.142 -8.001 2.321
Chile 6.124 5.317 4.048 1.779 2.32 1.714 1.174 3.939 1.124 -4.486 2.305
Liberia 7.7 8.42 8.836 0.695 0.007 -1.63 2.469 1.242 -2.516 -2.501 2.272
Nicaragua 6.317 6.496 4.927 4.785 4.792 4.563 4.631 -3.95 -3.879 -6 2.268
Cabo Verde 3.969 1.082 0.803 0.611 1.007 4.706 3.702 5.078 5.458 -4.04 2.2381
Thailand 0.84 7.243 2.687 0.984 3.134 3.429 4.066 4.151 2.372 -6.662 2.224
Namibia 5.091 5.062 5.615 5.758 4.527 -0.281 -0.062 0.342 -1.395 -2.484 2.217
Taiwan, Province of China 3.674 2.222 2.484 4.719 1.466 2.165 3.311 2.745 2.714 -4.031 2.147
Latvia 6.285 4.134 2.328 1.915 3.261 1.774 3.787 4.285 2.197 -8.608 2.136
Luxembourg 2.539 -0.353 3.654 4.297 4.305 4.575 1.801 3.111 2.298 -4.898 2.133
Timor-Leste 5.807 6.017 2.125 4.451 3.056 3.551 -3.799 -0.78 3.1 -3 2.053
Lesotho 5.716 6.073 3.851 2.824 3.261 3.395 -0.973 0.381 1.196 -5.208 2.052
Chad 0.12 8.807 5.763 6.893 1.77 -5.558 -2.38 2.303 2.96 -0.158 2.051
Eswatini 2.247 5.391 3.862 0.913 2.312 1.268 2.025 2.351 1.037 -0.941 2.047
Uruguay 5.162 3.538 4.638 3.239 0.371 1.69 2.591 1.62 0.222 -3 2.0466
New Zealand 1.904 2.528 2.203 3.17 4.078 4.167 3.774 3.166 2.18 -7.212 1.996
Antigua and Barbuda -1.959 3.372 -0.601 3.797 3.824 5.498 3.145 7.389 5.264 -9.998 1.973
Bulgaria 2.351 0.361 0.319 1.895 3.99 3.812 3.507 3.084 3.372 -4 1.869
Ecuador 7.868 5.642 4.947 3.789 0.099 -1.226 2.368 1.289 0.054 -6.271 1.856
North Macedonia 2.34 -0.456 2.925 3.629 3.856 2.848 1.082 2.72 3.551 -4 1.85
Slovak Republic 2.865 1.896 0.671 2.753 4.822 2.123 3.041 4.034 2.276 -6.2 1.828
Somalia n/a 1.2 1.86 2.354 3.46 2.894 1.385 2.8 2.9 -2.5 1.817
Algeria 2.823 3.391 2.8 3.8 3.7 3.2 1.3 1.4 0.7 -5.157 1.796
Vanuata 1.223 1.755 1.969 2.304 0.163 3.472 4.413 2.8 2.91 -3.269 1.774
Jordan 2.782 2.124 2.351 3.395 2.58 2.069 2.116 1.94 2.021 -3.735 1.764
Kuwait 9.628 6.625 1.151 0.499 0.593 2.926 -4.71 1.246 0.734 -1.107 1.756
Hong Kong SAR 4.815 1.7 3.102 2.762 2.388 2.169 3.791 2.862 -1.188 -4.821 1.758
Albania 2.545 1.418 1.002 1.774 2.219 3.315 3.802 4.071 2.214 -5.006 1.735
El Salvador 3.812 2.814 2.239 1.71 2.395 2.542 2.253 2.43 2.385 -5.44 1.714
Australia 2.842 3.8 2.127 2.582 2.306 2.776 2.461 2.73 1.847 -6.665 1.681
Montenegro 3.2 -2.724 3.549 1.784 3.39 2.949 4.716 5.078 3.609 -8.976 1.658
Angola 3.472 8.542 4.955 4.823 0.944 -2.58 -0.15 -1.2 -1.503 -1.374 1.593
Haiti 5.524 2.885 4.241 2.803 1.211 1.453 1.173 1.484 -1.197 -4 1.558
Serbia 2.036 -0.682 2.893 -1.59 1.776 3.34 2.049 4.392 4.187 -3.016 1.539
Mexico 3.663 3.642 1.354 2.804 3.288 2.911 2.118 2.136 -0.146 -6.63 1.514
United States 1.551 2.249 1.842 2.526 2.908 1.638 2.37 2.927 2.334 -5.907 1.444
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.908 -0.707 2.351 1.15 3.074 3.215 3.114 3.624 2.7 -5 1.443
Czech Republic 1.778 -0.8 -0.484 2.715 5.309 2.451 4.353 2.846 2.566 -6.5 1.423
Republic of Congo 3.393 3.829 3.272 6.843 2.619 -2.829 -1.772 1.59 -0.902 -2.277 1.377
Tonga 1.817 -1.125 -0.627 2.529 3.984 5.103 2.693 0.436 -0.141 -1.245 1.342
Burundi 4.033 4.447 5.944 4.494 -3.868 -0.628 0.544 1.646 1.772 -5.542 1.284
Marshall Islands -0.756 -2.37 3.718 -0.94 1.591 1.307 4.057 3.625 2.411 -0.24 1.24
Canada 3.146 1.762 2.33 2.868 0.69 1.107 2.979 1.834 1.458 2.1264 3.089
Sweden 3.052 -0.631 1.088 2.747 4.421 2.413 2.412 2.225 1.232 -6.788 1.217
Tunisia -1.918 4.089 2.822 2.873 1.166 1.249 1.918 2.664 1.043 -4.276 1.217
St. Kitts and Nevis 1.827 -2.228 5.384 6.286 1.032 2.282 -1.978 2.924 2.909 -8.1 1.088
Samoa 4.173 -4.089 -0.419 0.078 4.272 8.054 1.016 -2.168 3.464 -3.668 1.071
Palau 5.828 2.11 -1.304 5.451 8.202 0.019 -3.4 5.158 0.5 -11.949 1.062
United Kingdom 1.54 1.479 2.14 2.608 2.355 1.918 1.892 1.341 1.409 -6.502 1.018
Denmark 1.336 0.229 0.935 1.616 2.343 3.248 2.037 2.389 2.367 -6.5 1
Russia 5.066 3.7 1.8 0.7 -1.955 0.286 1.795 2.535 1.336 -5.466 0.980
Switzerland 1.833 1.006 1.879 2.482 1.266 1.711 1.864 2.744 0.917 -5.966 0.9736
Azerbaijan -1.573 2.203 5.843 2.798 2.21 3.122 4.833 4.118 2.443 -8.039 0.898
Slovenia 0.861 -2.639 -1.029 2.768 2.21 3.122 4.833 4.118 2.443 -8.039 0.865
Germany 3.913 0.428 0.431 2.218 1.742 2.23 2.465 1.522 0.565 -6.952 0.856
Norway 0.981 2.703 1.034 1.969 1.967 1.072 2.323 1.29 1.151 -6.269 0.822
South Africa 3.284 2.213 2.485 1.847 1.194 0.399 1.415 0.787 0.153 -5.801 0.798
Austria 2.923 0.68 0.026 0.661 1.015 2.083 2.476 2.42 1.585 -6.997 0.687
St. Lucia 4.327 -0.109 -2.005 1.328 0.102 3.428 3.489 2.639 1.729 -8.496 6.432
St. Vincent and the Grenadines -0.419 1.382 1.833 1.214 1.33 1.897 1 2.163 0.4 -4.547 0.625
Belgium 1.695 0.739 0.459 1.579 2.033 1.511 1.965 1.458 1.365 -6.924 0.588
Netherlands 1.55 -1.031 -0.127 1.424 1.958 2.192 2.911 2.597 1.811 -7.493 0.579
Micronesia 3.189 -1.867 -3.68 -2.306 4.622 0.9 2.682 0.212 1.183 -0.384 0.455
Suriname 5.847 2.697 2.931 0.254 -3.414 5.56 1.762 2.662 2.3 -4.9 0.454
Belarus 5.55 1.708 0.999 1.651 -3.83 -2.526 2.532 3.149 1.222 -5.992 0.446
Belize 1.921 2.416 1.301 3.637 2.849 0.085 1.87 2.08 0.297 -11.997 0.446
France 2.193 0.313 0.576 0.956 1.113 1.095 2.26 1.725 1.31 -7.18 0.436
Cyprus 0.402 -3.448 -6.551 -1.865 3.376 6.746 4.362 4.057 3.23 -6.471 0.384
Brunei Darussalam 3.744 0.913 -2.125 -2.508 -0.405 -2.465 1.327 0.053 3.869 1.297 0.37
Japan -0.115 1.495 2 0.375 1.223 0.522 2.168 0.323 0.654 -5.163 0.348
Finland 2.548 -1.397 -0.902 -0.365 0.544 2.711 3.101 1.63 0.98 -6.031 0.282
Croatia -0.31 -2.238 -0.548 -0.104 2.437 3.484 3.139 2.695 2.919 -9.024 0.245
Spain -0.814 -2.958 -1.437 1.382 3.837 3.028 2.895 2.354 1.977 -8 0.226
Jamaica 1.426 -0.501 0.206 0.576 0.871 1.499 0.687 1.886 0.97 -5.605 0.202
Brazil 3.986 1.928 3.008 0.505 -3.551 -3.285 1.314 1.312 1.133 -5.303 0.105
Macao SAR 21.672 9.237 11.2 -1.201 -21.594 -0.719 9.888 5.442 -4.711 -29.616 -0.04
Portugal -1.696 -4.057 -0.923 0.792 1.792 2.019 3.506 2.637 2.157 -8 -0.177
Dominica -0.224 -1.059 -0.608 4.389 -2.551 2.522 -9.53 0.533 9.205 -4.677 -0.2
Argentina 6.004 -1.026 2.405 -2.513 2.731 -2.08 2.669 -2.482 -2.163 -5.719 -0.217
The Bahamas 0.613 3.087 -2.952 0.737 0.598 0.446 0.067 1.566 1.801 -8.325 -0.236
Aruba 3.505 -1.368 4.165 0.904 -0.448 0.483 2.342 1.2 0.4 -13.7 -0.252
Barbados -0.673 -0.45 -1.411 -0.126 2.446 2.485 0.478 -0.583 -0.098 -7.6 -0.553
Central African Republic 4.195 5.054 -36.392 0.08 4.338 4.75 4.528 3.82 2.97 1.044 -0.5613
Iran 3.062 -7.714 -0.325 3.215 -1.586 12.518 3.732 -5.419 -7.586 -5.985 -0.609
Ukraine 5,466 0.239 -0.027 -6.553 -9.773 2.441 2.525 3.277 3.173 -7.731 -0.67
Lebanon 0.867 2.541 3.811 2.461 .0212 1.53 0.851 -1.926 -6.513 -12.019 -0.819
Italy 0.707 -2.981 -1.841 -0.005 0.778 1.293 1.668 0.798 0.301 -9.134 -0.8412
Trinidad and Tobago -0.192 -0.704 2.229 0.913 1.823 -6.296 -2.312 -0.245 -0.002 -4.54 -1.115
Puerto Rico -0.359 0.029 -0.307 -1.19 -1.049 -1.263 -2.657 -4.906 2.0 -6.0 -1.57
Libya -66.657 124.709 -36.829 -53.017 -13.023 -7.389 64.014 17.879 9.89 -58.662 -1.9085
Sudan -2.825 -17.005 1.963 4.671 1.913 3.468 0.709 -2.294 -2.521 -7.222 -1.914
San Marino -8.522 -7.207 -0.817 -0.657 2.695 2.344 0.435 1.696 1.1 -12.17 -2.11
Greece -9.132 -7.3 -3.242 0.74 -0.438 -0.191 1.505 1.934 1.87 -10.04 -2.429
Equatorial Guinea 6.524 8.313 -4.133 0.415 -9.11 -8.817 -5.667 -5.803 -6.096 -5.492 -2.987
South Sudan n/a -52.429 29.329 2.918 -0.173 -16.737 -5.491 -1.123 11.283 4.893 -3.059
Yemen -12.715 2.393 4.824 -0.189 -27.995 -9.375 -5.072 0.752 2.1 -3 -4.827
Venezuela 4.176 5.626 1.343 -3.894 -6.2221 -17.04 -15.761 -19.621 -35 -15 -10.130
Syria n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook April 2020.