Developing Asian and African countries lead with fastest GDP growth in the world. 

Author: Luca Ventura
Project Coordinator: B Pham

Data from the International Monetary Fund tells us that Nauru has the fastest growing economy on Earth, averaging an astounding annual growth rate of 12%. The reason? Bird poop. Ever since the nation gained independence in 1968, the country's economy has been fueled by fossilized bird guano, which—thanks to the high amount of phosphates—makes for an exceptional fertilizer. Then the guano supply dried up almost completely. Today, Nauru survives by virtue of the support it receives from Australia, which has built on the island a detention center for its asylum seekers. With sporadic yearly spikes of over 35% in GDP growth, these sudden injections of foreign funds can boost dramatically—at least on paper—the country’s output. The truth is that Nauru is currently facing financial ruin.

The story of this island, whose economic output entered negative territory last year, is a cautionary tale about the perils of relying on just one source of income. Static snapshots of a country’s GDP figures can be misleading: many once-fast growing economies have seen similar downfalls. It is only when we look at trends over time that the ascent of certain nations and the stagnation of others can be correctly appraised.

Ethiopia, Turkmenistan, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, China, India, Laos, Rwanda: these are the nations that have shown the most sustained and robust GDP growth among close to 200 routinely surveyed by the IMF.

Over the past two decades, Ethiopia has been made improvements to its infrastructure and encouraged greater private-sector involvement in an attempt to transform its agriculture-based economy into a manufacturing hub.  Turkmenistan’s autocratic government has continued relying on its natural gas resources but dwindling commodity prices, lack of diversification and an unfriendly business climate paint the picture of a country now facing an economic crisis. Exports of cotton, natural gas and gold provide significant revenues to Uzbekistan, but its government has done little to modernize the economy. China and India are continuing their march toward domination of the global economy while Lao and Mongolia are taking a page from their old playbook and turning themselves into thriving manufacturing hubs. Rwanda, with its extensive economic development and poverty reduction programs, shows what efficient and democratic political institutions can do to a country once ravaged by civil war and genocide: turn it into an economic miracle.

It is not too hard to see which nations have made plans for long and widespread growth, and which ones draw on finite resources and a business as usual-ways of doing things. It will be interesting to see how they all fare ten years from now.

The Gross Domestic Product of a country can be defined as the total monetary value of the goods and services produced within its borders in a year. GDP growth is expressed as a per cent. The average growth rate has been calculated using the geometric mean to obtain a ten-year equivalent rate.

GDP Growth by Country (%)

Country 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Avg Change
Nauru 13.6 11.7 10.1 34.2 36.5 2.8 10.4 4.0 -2.4 -1.0 12.0
Ethiopia 10.6 11.4 8.7 9.9 10.3 10.4 8.0 10.1 7.7 7.7 9.5
Turkmenistan 9.16 14.7 11.0 10.2 10.3 6.5 6.2 6.5 6.2 6.3 8.7
Mongolia 7.3 17.3 12.3 11.6 7.9 2.4 1.2 5.3 6.9 6.9 6.3
Uzbekistan 8.5 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.3 6.9 6.7 6.6 7.7
China 10.6 9.5 7.9 7.8 7.3 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.6 6.3 7.6
India 8.0 8.0 7.8 8.0 7.6 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.7 7.4
Lao P.D.R. 8.0 7.9 7.8 8.0 7.6 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.7 7.4
Rwanda 7.3 7.8 8.8 4.6 7.6 8.9 6.0 6.2 8.6 7.8 7.4
Ghana 7.9 17.4 9.0 7.9 2.9 2.2 3.4 8.1 5.6 8.8 7.3
Cambodia 6.0 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.1 7.0 6.9 7.0 7.3 6.8 7.0
Bangladesh 6.0 6.5 6.3 6.0 6.3 6.8 7.2 7.6 7.7 7.3 6.8
Tajikistan 6.5 7.4 7.5 7.4 6.7 6.0 6.9 7.1 7.0 5.0 6.8
Còte d'Ivoire 2.0 -4.9 10.9 9.3 8.8 8.8 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.5 6.6
Panama 5.8 11.3 9.8 6.9 5.1 5.7 5.0 5.3 3.9 6.0 6.5
Bhutan 9.3 9.7 6.4 3.6 4.0 6.2 7.3 7.4 5.8 4.8 6.4
Ireland 1.9 3.7 0.2 1.3 8.8 25.0 4.9 7.2 6.8 4.1 6.4
Philippines 7.6 3.7 6.7 7.1 6.1 6.0 6.9 6.7 6.2 6.5 6.3
Tanzania 6.4 7.9 5.1 6.8 6.7 6.2 6.9 6.8 6.6 4.0 6.3
Maldives 7.1 8.4 2.4 7.3 7.3 2.9 7.3 6.9 7.0 6.3 6.3
Myanmar 5.3 5.6 7.3 8.4 8.0 7.0 5.9 6.8 2.1 6.4 6.3
Vietnam 6.4 6.2 5.2 5.4 6.0 6.7 6.2 6.8 7.1 6.5 6.3
Macao SAR 25.3 21.7 9.2 11.2 -1.2 -21.6 -0.9 9.7 4.7 4.3 6.2
Niger 8.4 2.2 11.9 5.3 7.5 4.3 4.9 4.9 5.2 6.5 6.1
Djibouti 4.1 7.3 4.8 5.0 6.0 6.5 6.5 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.0
Zimbabwe 19.7 14.2 16.7 2.0 2.4 1.8 0.7 4.7 3.4 -5.2 6.0
Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.1 6.9 7.1 8.5 9.5 6.9 2.4 3.4 3.9 4.3 6.0
Burkina Faso 8.4 6.6 6.5 5.8 4.3 3.9 5.9 6.3 6.0 6.0 6.0
Guinea 4.2 5.6 5.9 3.9 3.7 3.8 10.5 9.9 5.8 5.9 5.9
Kenya 8.4 6.1 4.6 5.9 5.4 5.7 5.9 4.9 6.0 5.8 5.9
Dominican Republic 8.3 3.1 2.7 4.9 7.6 7.0 6.6 4.6 7.0 5.1 5.7
Mozambique 6.7 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.4 6.6 3.8 3.7 3.3 4.0 5.7
Qatar 18.1 13.4 4.7 4.4 4.0 3.7 2.1 1.6 2.2 2.6 5.7
Togo 6.1 6.4 6.5 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.6 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.7
Malta 3.5 1.4 2.7 4.6 8.6 10.6 5.7 6.7 6.4 5.2 5.5
Turkey 8.5 11.1 4.8 8.5 5.2 6.1 3.2 7.4 2.6 -2.5 5.5
Indonesia 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.6 5.0 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.5
Iraq 6.4 7.5 13.9 7.6 0.7 2.5 13.6 -1.7 0.6 2.8 5.4
Malaysia 7.5 5.3 5.5 4.7 6.0 5.1 4.2 5.9 4.7 4.7 5.4
Sri Lanka 8.0 8.4 9.1 3.4 5.0 5.0 4.5 3.3 3.0 3.5 5.3
Senegal 3.6 1.5 5.1 2.8 6.6 6.4 6.2 7.2 6.2 6.9 5.2
Uganda 7.7 6.8 2.2 4.7 4.6 5.7 2.3 5.0 6.2 6.3 5.1
Sierra Leone 5.3 6.3 15.2 20.7 4.6 -20.5 6.4 3.8 3.7 5.4 5.1
Singapore 15.2 6.5 4.3 5.0 4.1 2.5 2.8 3.9 3.2 2.3 5.0
Zambia 10.3 5.6 7.6 5.1 4.7 2.9 3.8 3.4 3.5 3.1 5.0
Botswana 8.6 6.0 4.5 11.3 4.1 -1.7 4.3 2.9 4.6 3.9 4.9
Afghanistan 8.4 6.5 14.0 5.7 2.7 1.0 2.2 2.7 2.3 3.0 4.8
Benin 2.1 3.0 4.8 7.2 6.4 2.1 4.0 5.8 6.5 6.5 4.8
Bolivia 4.1 5.2 5.1 6.8 5.5 4.9 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.0 4.8
Papua New Guinea 10.1 1.1 4.6 3.8 15.4 5.3 1.7 2.4 0.0 3.8 4.8
Nepal 4.8 3.4 4.8 4.1 6.0 3.3 0.6 7.9 6.3 6.5 4.8
Paraguay 11.1 4.2 -0.5 8.4 4.9 3.1 4.3 5.0 3.7 3.5 4.8
Georgia 6.2 7.2 6.4 3.4 4.6 2.9 2.8 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.8
Seychelles 5.9 5.4 3.7 6.0 4.5 4.9 4.5 5.3 3.6 3.4 4.7
Peru 8.5 6.5 6.0 5.8 2.4 3.3 4.0 2.5 4.0 3.9 4.7
Solomon Islands 6.8 13.2 4.6 3.0 2.3 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.4 2.9 4.6
Cameroon 3.4 4.1 4.5 5.4 5.9 5.7 4.6 3.5 4.0 4.3 4.6
São Tomé and Príncipe 6.7 4.4 3.1 4.8 6.6 3.8 4.2 3.9 3.0 4.0 4.4
Mali 5.4 3.2 -0.8 2.3 7.1 6.2 5.8 5.4 4.9 5.0 4.4
Kazakhstan 7.3 7.4 4.8 6.0 4.2 1.2 1.1 4.1 4.1 3.2 4.3
Eritrea 2.2 8.7 7.0 4.7 2.9 2.6 1.9 5.0 4.2 3.8 4.3
Moldova 7.1 5.8 -0.6 9.0 5.0 -0.3 4.4 4.7 4.0 3.5 4.3
Guinea-Bissau 4.6 8.1 -1.7 3.3 1.0 6.1 6.3 5.9 3.8 5.0 4.2
Mauritania 4.8 4.7 5.8 6.1 5.6 0.4 1.8 3.0 3.0 6.4 4.2
Armenia 2.2 4.7 7.1 3.3 3.6 3.3 0.3 7.5 5.0 4.6 4.2
Malawi 6.9 4.9 1.9 5.2 5.7 3.0 2.3 4.0 3.2 4.0 4.1
Kyrgyz Republic -0.5 6.0 -0.1 10.9 4.0 3.9 4.3 4.7 3.5 3.8 4.1
                       
Pakistan 2.6 3.6 3.8 3.7 4.1 4.1 4.6 5.4 5.2 2.9 4.0
Guyana 4.4 5.4 5.0 5.0 3.9 3.1 3.4 2.1 3.4 3.8 4.0
Gabon 6.3 7.1 5.3 5.5 4.4 3.9 2.1 0.5 1.2 3.1 3.9
Egypt 5.1 1.8 2.2 3.3 2.9 4.4 4.3 4.2 5.3 5.5 3.9
Timor-Leste 8.5 7.7 5.5 2.5 4.1 4.0 5.3 -4.6 0.8 5.0 3.9
Nigeria 11.3 4.9 4.3 5.4 6.3 2.7 -1.6 0.8 1.9 2.1 3.8
Mauritius 4.4 4.1 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.8
Israel 5.5 5.2 2.2 4.3 3.9 2.6 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.8
Colombia 4.3 7.4 3.9 4.6 4.7 3.0 2.1 1.4 2.7 3.5 3.7
Thailand 7.5 0.8 7.2 2.7 1.0 3.1 3.4 4.0 4.1 3.5 3.7
Libya 3.2 -66.7 124.7 -36.8 -53.0 -13.0 -7.4 64.0 17.9 4.3 3.7
Honduras 3.7 3.8 4.1 2.8 3.1 3.8 3.8 4.9 3.7 3.4 3.7
Costa Rica 5.0 4.3 4.8 2.3 3.5 3.6 4.2 3.4 2.7 2.9 3.7
Estonia 2.3 7.6 4.3 1.9 2.9 1.9 3.5 4.9 3.9 3.0 3.6
United Arab Emirates 1.6 6.9 4.5 5.1 4.4 5.1 3.0 0.8 1.7 2.8 3.6
Saudi Arabia 5.0 10.0 5.4 2.7 3.7 4.1 1.7 -0.7 2.2 1.8 3.6
Chile 5.8 6.1 5.3 4.0 1.8 2.3 1.7 1.3 4.0 3.4 3.6
Kosovo 3.3 4.4 2.8 3.4 1.2 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.2 3.6
Poland 3.6 5.0 1.6 1.4 3.3 3.8 3.1 4.8 5.1 3.8 3.6
Morocco 3.8 5.2 3.0 4.5 2.7 4.6 1.1 4.1 3.1 3.2 3.5
Namibia 6.0 5.1 5.1 5.6 6.4 6.1 0.6 -0.9 -0.1 1.4 3.5
Chad 13.6 0.1 8.8 5.8 6.9 1.8 -6.4 -3.1 3.1 4.5 3.5
The Gambia 6.5 -4.3 5.6 4.8 -0.9 5.9 0.4 4.6 6.6 5.4 3.5
Liberia 6.4 7.7 8.4 8.8 0.7 0.0 -1.6 2.5 1.2 0.4 3.5
Guatemala 2.9 4.2 3.0 3.7 4.2 4.1 3.1 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.4
Bahrain 4.3 2.0 3.7 5.4 4.4 2.9 3.5 3.8 1.8 1.8 3.4
Lithuania 1.6 6.0 3.8 3.5 3.5 2.0 2.4 4.1 3.4 2.9 3.3
Hong Kong SAR 6.8 4.8 1.7 3.1 2.8 2.4 2.2 3.8 3.0 2.7 3.3
Taiwan Province of China  10.6 3.8 2.1 2.2 4.0 0.8 1.5 3.1 2.6 2.5 3.3
Uruguay 7.8 5.2 3.5 4.6 3.2 0.4 1.7 2.7 2.1 1.9 3.3
Grenada -0.5 0.8 -1.2 2.4 7.3 6.4 3.7 5.1 4.8 4.2 3.3
South Korea 6.5 3.7 2.3 2.9 3.3 2.8 2.9 3.1 2.7 2.6 3.3
Lesotho 6.3 6.7 4.9 2.2 3.0 2.5 3.1 -1.6 1.5 3.9 3.2
Madagascar 0.3 1.4 3.0 2.2 3.3 3.1 4.2 4.3 5.2 5.2 3.2
Nicaragua 4.4 6.3 6.5 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.9 -4.0 -5.0 3.2
Slovak Republic 5.0 2.8 1.7 1.5 2.8 4.2 3.1 3.2 4.1 3.7 3.2
Oman 2.0 2.6 9.1 5.1 1.4 4.7 5.0 -0.9 2.1 1.1 3.2
Fiji 3.0 2.7 1.4 4.7 5.6 3.8 0.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.2
Tuvala -3.1 7.9 -3.8 4.6 1.3 9.1 3.0 3.2 4.3 4.1 3.1
Romania -3.9 2.0 2.1 3.5 3.4 3.9 4.8 7.0 4.1 3.1 3.0
Kiribati -0.9 1.6 4.7 4.3 -0.7 10.4 5.1 0.3 2.3 2.3 2.9
Algeria 3.6 2.8 3.4 2.8 3.8 3.7 3.2 1.4 2.1 2.3 2.9
Republic of Congo 8.7 3.4 3.8 3.3 6.8 2.6 -2.8 -3.1 0.8 5.4 2.9
Luxembourg 4.9 2.5 -0.4 3.7 4.3 3.9 2.4 1.5 3.0 2.7 2.9
Mexico 5.1 3.7 3.6 1.4 2.8 3.3 2.9 2.1 2.0 1.6 2.8
Latvia -3.9 6.4 4.0 2.4 1.9 3.0 2.1 4.6 4.8 3.2 2.8
Iceland -3.4 1.9 1.3 4.1 2.1 4.7 6.6 4.6 4.6 1.7 2.8
New Zealand 2.0 1.9 2.5 2.2 3.1 4.0 4.2 2.6 3.0 2.5 2.8
Albania 3.7 2.5 1.4 1.0 1.8 2.2 3.3 3.8 4.2 3.7 2.8
Ecuador 3.5 7.9 5.6 4.9 3.8 0.1 -1.2 2.4 1.1 -0.5 2.8
Cabo Verde 1.5 4.0 1.1 0.8 0.6 1.0 4.7 4.0 4.7 5.0 2.7
Montenegro 2.7 3.2 -2.7 3.5 1.8 3.4 2.9 4.7 4.5 2.8 2.7
Australia 2.4 2.8 3.9 2.1 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.4 2.8 2.1 2.6
Hungary 0.7 1.7 -1.6 2.1 4.2 3.5 2.3 4.1 4.9 33.6 2.5
Sweden 6.0 2.7 -0.3 1.2 2.6 4.5 2.7 2.1 2.3 1.2 2.5
El Salvador 2.1 3.8 2.8 2.2 1.7 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.5
North Macedonia 3.4 2.3 -0.5 2.9 3.6 3.9 2.8 0.2 2.7 3.0 2.4
Eswatini 3.8 2.2 4.7 6.4 1.9 0.4 3.2 1.9 0.2 -0.4 2.4
Jordan 2.3 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.1 2.4 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.4
Comoros 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.5 2.0 1.0 2.2 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.4
Angola 4.9 3.5 8.5 5.0 4.8 0.9 -2.6 -0.2 -1.7 0.4 2.4
Czech Republic 2.3 1.8 -0.8 -0.5 2.7 5.3 2.5 4.4 2.9 2.9 2.3
Bulgaria 1.3 1.9 0.0 0.5 1.8 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.2 3.3 2.3
St. Kitts and Nevis -1.5 1.8 -0.7 5.5 6.1 2.1 2.3 1.2 3.0 3.5 2.3
Vanuatu 1.6 1.2 1.8 2.0 2.3 0.2 3.5 4.4 3.2 3.0 2.3
Somalia n/a n/a 1.2 -0.8 0.4 3.8 4.9 2.3 3.1 3.5 2.3
Belize 3.4 2.2 2.9 0.9 3.7 3.4 -0.6 1.4 3.0 2.5 2.3
Tonga 3.2 1.8 -1.1 -0.6 2.9 3.5 -0.6 1.4 3.0 2.5 2.3
United States 2.6 1.6 2.2 1.8 2.5 2.9 1.6 2.2 2.9 2.3 2.3
Palau 0.3 5.5 4.8 -1.7 3.0 10.4 0.5 -3.7 0.4 2.0 2.2
Canada 3.1 3.1 1.8 2.3 2.9 0.7 1.1 3.0 1.8 1.5 2.1
Tunisia 3.5 -1.9 4.0 2.9 3.0 1.2 1.1 2.0 2.5 2.7 2.1
Antigua and Barbuda -7.2 -2.1 3.5 -0.1 4.7 4.0 4.8 3.6 5.3 4.0 2.1
Lebanon 8.0 0.9 2.7 2.6 1.9 0.4 1.6 0.6 0.3 1.3 2.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.8 0.9 -0.7 2.4 1.2 3.1 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.0
Kuwait -2.4 9.6 6.6 1.2 0.5 0.6 2.9 -3.5 1.7 2.5 2.0
Burundi 5.1 4.0 4.4 5.9 4.5 -4.0 -1.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 2.0
Germany 3.9 3.7 0.7 0.6 2.2 1.5 2.2 2.5 1.5 0.8 1.9
Marshall Islands 1.1 3.2 2.8 -0.7 -0.6 1.8 4.5 2.6 2.4 2.3 1.9
Russia 4.5 5.1 3.7 1.8 0.7 -2.5 0.3 1.6 2.3 1.6 1.9
Slovendia 1.2 0.6 -2.7 -1.1 3.0 2.3 3.1 4.9 4.5 3.4 1.9
Samoa -2.0 5.6 0.4 -1.9 1.2 1.7 7.2 2.7 0.7 3.3 1.9
Belarus 7.8 5.6 1.7 1.0 1.7 -3.8 -2.5 2.5 3.0 1.8 1.9
Serbia 0.7 2.0 -0.7 2.9 -1.6 1.8 3.3 2.0 4.4 3.5 1.8
United Kingdom 1.7 1.6 1.4 2.0 2.9 2.3 1.8 1.8 1.4 3.5 1.8
Switzerland 2.9 1.8 1.0 1.9 2.5 1.3 1.6 1.7 2.5 1.1 1.8
South Africa 3.0 3.3 2.2 2.5 1.8 1.2 0.4 1.4 0.8 1.2 1.8
Azerbaijan 4.8 -1.6 2.2 5.8 2.8 1.1 -3.1 0.1 1.4 3.4 1.7
Haiti -5.5 5.5 2.9 4.2 2.8 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.7
Austria 1.8 2.9 0.7 0.0 0.7 1.1 2.0 2.6 2.7 2.0 1.7
Norway 0.7 1.0 2.7 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.2 2.0 1.4 2.0 1.6
Denmark 1.9 1.3 0.2 0.9 1.6 2.3 2.4 2.3 1.2 1.7 1.6
Argentina 10.1 6.0 -1.0 2.4 -2.5 2.7 -2.1 2.7 -2.5 -1.2 1.5
Netherlands 1.3 1.6 -1.0 -0.1 1.4 2.0 2.2 2.9 2.5 1.8 1.5
Brazil 7.5 4.0 1.9 3.0 0.5 -3.5 -3.3 1.1 1.1 2.1 1.4
St. Lucia 0.3 4.1 -0.3 -2.0 0.0 0.3 3.9 3.7 1.0 3.3 1.4
Belgium 2.7 1.8 0.2 0.2 1.3 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.4
Suriname 5.2 5.8 2.7 2.9 0.3 -3.4 -5.6 1.7 2.0 2.2 1.4
Japan 4.2 -0.1 1.5 2.0 0.4 1.2 0.6 1.9 0.8 1.0 1.3
France 1.9 2.2 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.2 1.5 1.3 1.3
Finland 3.0 2.6 -1.4 -0.8 -0.6 0.1 2.5 2.8 2.4 1.9 1.3
Cyprus 1.3 0.4 -2.9 -5.8 -1.3 2.0 4.8 4.5 3.9 3.5 1.0
Spain 0.0 -1.0 -2.9 -1.7 1.4 3.7 3.2 3.0 2.5 2.1 1.0
The Bahamas 1.5 0.6 3.1 -0.4 -0.1 1.0 -1.7 1.4 2.3 2.1 1.0
Croatia -1.5 -0.3 -2.3 -0.5 -0.1 2.4 3.5 2.9 2.7 2.6 0.9
Iran 5.7 3.1 -7.7 -0.3 3.2 -1.6 12.5 3.7 -3.9 -6.0 0.9
Micronesia 2.0 3.3 -2.0 -3.9 -2.2 5.0 0.7 2.4 2.1 1.2 0.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines -2.3 0.2 1.3 2.5 0.2 0.8 0.8 0.7 2.0 2.3 0.9
Aruba -3.3 3.5 -1.4 4.2 0.9 -0.4 0.5 2.3 1.2 0.7 0.8
Jamaica -1.4 1.4 -0.5 0.2 0.6 0.9 1.5 0.7 1.4 1.7 0.6
Portugal 1.9 -1.8 -4.0 -1.1 0.9 1.8 1.9 2.8 2.1 1.7 0.6
Brunei Darussalam 2.7 3.7 0.9 -2.1 -2.5 -0.4 -2.5 1.3 -0.2 4.8 0.6
Ukraine 4.1 5.5 0.2 0.0 -6.6 -9.8 2.4 2.5 3.3 2.7 0.4
Italy 1.7 0.6 -2.8 -1.7 0.1 0.9 1.1 1.6 0.9 0.1 0.2
Barbados -2.2 -0.8 -0.1 -1.4 -0.2 2.2 2.3 -0.2 -0.5 -0.1 -0.1
Central African Republic 3.0 3.3 4.1 -36.7 1.0 4.8 4.5 4.3 4.3 5.0 -0.2
Trinidad and Tobago 3.5 -0.2 -0.7 2.3 -1.3 1.9 -6.5 -2.0 0.3 0.0 -0.3
Dominica 0.7 -0.2 -1.1 0.8 4.2 -3.7 2.6 -5.4 -12.0 8.0 -0.6
Sudan 3.9 -2.8 -17.0 2.0 4.7 1.9 2.9 1.7 -2.1 -2.3 -0.7
Puerto Rico -0.4 -0.4 0.0 -0.3 -1.2 -1.0 -1.3 -2.4 -2.3 -1.1 -1.0
San Marino -5.4 -8.3 -7.0 -0.8 -0.7 2.5 2.5 0.6 1.1 0.8 -1.5
Greece -5.5 -9.1 -7.3 -3.2 0.7 -0.4 -0.2 1.5 2.1 2.4 -1.9
Equatorial Guinea -8.9 6.5 8.3 -4.1 0.4 -9.1 -8.8 -4.7 -5.7 -4.0 -3.0
Yemen 7.7 -12.7 2.4 4.8 -0.2 -16.7 -13.6 -5.9 -2.7 2.1 -3.5
South Sudan n/a n/a -52.4 29.3 2.9 -0.2 -16.7 -5.5 -1.2 8.8 -4.4
Venezuela -1.5 4.2 5.6 1.3 -3.9 -6.2 -17.0 -15.7 -18.0 -25.0 -7.6

Source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook April 2019.