The world's poorest countries suffered from civil wars, ethnic and sectarian strife and then COVID-19 came along making bad situations worse.

Author: Luca Ventura

The world has enough wealth and resources to ensure that the entire human race enjoys a basic standard of living. Yet people in countries like Burundi, South Sudan and Somalia—the three poorest in the world—continue to live in desperate poverty.

How do we measure how poor or wealthy a given nation is compared to another? While GDP per capita is often considered the standard metric, by compensating for differences in living costs and rates of inflation, the purchasing power parity (PPP) can better assess an individual’s buying power in a particular country. 

It is hard to pinpoint a single cause of long-term poverty. Dictatorial and corrupt governments can make what could be a very rich nation into a poor one. And so does a history of exploitative colonization, weak rule of law, war and social unrest, severe climate conditions or hostile, aggressive neighbors. Hence why economists often refer to “cycles” of poverty. For example, a country in debt will not be able to afford good schools, and a poorly educated workforce will be less capable of fixing problems and creating conditions that will attract foreign investment.

Click here to read an interview with Mary Ellen Iskenderian, president and CEO of Women’s World Banking, which is dedicated to expanding financial inclusion to poor women in emerging markets.

Underprivileged households worldwide, it goes without saying, suffered the worst social and economic consequences of the coronavirus pandemic. When COVID-19 struck, the IMF warned: “The fraction of the world’s population living in extreme poverty—that is, on less than $1.90 a day—had fallen below 10% in recent years (from more than 35% in 1990). This progress is imperiled by the COVID-19 crisis, with more than 90% of emerging market and developing economies projected to register negative per capita income growth in 2020.” In countries with high shares of informal employment, lockdowns fueled joblessness and abrupt loss of income for many of those workers. Not only that, the IMF explained, school closures are expected to have disproportionately negative effects on the earnings prospects of millions of children.

Many of those predictions have already come true. “A way out of this health and economic crisis is now increasingly visible,” the IMF's chief economist and director of research, Gita Gopinath, wrote in the forewords to the April 2021’s World Economic Outlook update. However, due to stark differences in the pace of vaccine rollout and other factors, whereas several advanced economies will return to pre-Covid GDP levels in the coming months, too many emerging market and developing nations are not expected to do so until well into 2023. “The divergent recovery paths are likely to create significantly wider gaps in living standards between developing countries and others, compared to pre-pandemic expectations,” Gopinath warns. In the meantime, an additional 95 million people have entered the ranks of the extreme poor in 2020, and 80 million are today more undernourished than before. 

These reversals of gain in poverty reduction are especially visible in the world's 10 poorest countries. All of them are found in Africa, and in 2020 each one of them experienced a drop in the per-capita purchasing power compared to not just one or two years earlier, but in some cases even  decade. In these countries, on average, the individual share of the gross domestic output amounts to $1,125. By contrast, in the top 10 richest nations this figure is close to $78,600. 

Many of those predictions—exacerbated by the emergence of the Delta variant, rising global inflation and the increasingly tangible threat of climate change—came true. The divergence in economic prospects between rich and emerging and developing markets remains a major concern, Gita Gopinath, IMF's chief economist and director of research, writes in the forewords to the October 2021’s World Economic Outlook update: “These economic divergences are a consequence of large disparities in vaccine access and in policy support. While almost 60 percent of the population in advanced economies are fully vaccinated and some are now receiving booster shots, about 96 percent of the population in low-income countries remain unvaccinated. Emerging and developing economies, faced with tighter financing conditions and a greater risk of de-anchoring inflation expectations, are withdrawing policy support more quickly despite larger shortfalls in output.” Furthermore, Gopinath explains, as a result of supply disruptions caused by the pandemic,  food prices have increased the most in low-income countries where food insecurity is most acute, adding to the burdens of poorer households and raising the risk of social unrest. In the meantime, today, about 65–75 million additional people are estimated to be in extreme poverty compared to pre-pandemic projections.

These reversals of gain in poverty reduction are especially visible in the world's 10 poorest countries. All of them are found in Africa, and since the start of the pandemic—although their outlook for 2021 and beyond has somewhat improved—almost all of them experienced a drop in the per-capita purchasing power compared to pre-pandemic levels. In these countries, on average, the individual share of the gross domestic output is roughly $1,200. By contrast, in the top 10 richest nations this figure is over $87,000.

Two of the countries in our list are within the Sahel region, where persistent and widespread droughts cause food shortages and associated medical and social problems. Six of them are landlocked, putting them at a considerable disadvantage relative to those with access to maritime trade. The decline in commodity prices in recent years has torpedoed their better chances for progress. All have experienced political instability, disputed elections, and ethnic or religious strife. And while all these countries have recorded fewer cases of coronavirus than most nations around the world, often there is no clear vaccination plan and the infection is still spreading. A large number of cases and deaths, sadly, will continue to go unreported.

Values are expressed in current international dollars, reflecting a single year's currency exchange rates and PPP adjustments. Data source: International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021.


THE 10 POOREST COUNTRIESIN THE WORLD


10. Madagascar

Current International Dollars:  1,630 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

Located 400 kilometers off the coast of East Africa, Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world. Known for its astonishing wildlife, the flourishing tourism industry has not been able to lift the country out of poverty. The majority of the population is still dependent upon agriculture for their livelihoods, leaving the country’s economy especially vulnerable to weather-related disasters. Since becoming independent from France in 1960, Madagascar has experienced bouts of political instability, violent coups and disputed elections.

Yet, in recent years, Madagascar was finally on an upward trajectory. President Andry Rajoelina and his predecessor (and archrival) Hery Rajaonarimampianina had made poverty reduction and infrastructure development major priorities. Growth was increasing steadily, structural reforms were underway and foreign investors coming back.

Everything changed last year. Covid-19, the World Bank stated, has triggered a sharp recession, hitting especially hard the population employed in tourism and in the manufacturing sector. What’s worse, the outbreak also depleted the availability of fiscal resources for priority investments and social programs, putting on hold the goal of achieving more inclusive growth.

Yet, in recent years, at least for a little while, Madagascar appeared on a slightly upward trajectory.  Growth was increasing steadily, foreign investors were coming back, and poverty reduction and infrastructure development were declared major priorities by populist president Andry Rajoelina.

But they were just that—promises, mostly. Rajoelina, his critics say, has proved to be corrupt and ineffective (although he recently sacked all his ministers blaming them for the very same reasons). The pandemic triggered a sharp recession, hitting especially hard the population employed in tourism and in the manufacturing sector. What is worse, the outbreak also depleted the availability of fiscal resources for priority investments and social programs. Rajoelina top strategy to fight Covid and overcome its social and economic repercussions? Promoting Covid-Organics, a locally produced herbal beverage that he claims can prevent and cure Coronavirus.


9. Liberia

Current International Dollars:  1,623 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

Africa’s oldest republic has also ranked amongst the poorest nations for the longest time. While the country has enjoyed peace and stability since the ending of the civil war in 2003, its governments failed to adequately address serious systemic problems and structural challenges. To add to the difficulties, this country of about 5 million has greatly suffered from the decline in commodity prices and the major Ebola epidemic that hit West Africa in 2014.

Expectations were high when the former football star George Weah became president in 2018. His term was instead marred by high inflation and unemployment and negative economic growth. Although a moderate recovery is now projected, Covid-19 is bound to cast a long shadow on the nation’s prospects.

Things, however, might be falling into place at last. Liberia’s economy grew by 3.5% in 2021 and is projected to expand by 4.7% in 2022.


8. Malawi

Current International Dollars:  1,503 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

One of Africa’s smallest nations, in recent years Malawi has made strides in improving economic growth and implementing crucial structural reforms. Nevertheless, poverty is still widespread, and the nation’s economy—largely dependent upon rain-fed crops—remains vulnerable to weather-related shocks. As a result, while living standards in urban areas are broadly improving, food insecurity in rural parts is extremely high.

Malawi is a generally peaceful country that has had stable governments since gaining independence from Britain in 1964. However, disputed poll results are far from being an anomaly. In 2020, the country's constitutional court annulled former president Peter Mutharika's poll win in the previous year’s general elections citing vote tampering. Theologian and politician Lazarus Chakwera, who was sworn in his place, declared that he wanted to provide the kind of leadership "that makes everybody prosper." The pandemic put that plan on hold: last year, the country’s GDP dropped to 0.6% from 4.5% a year earlier. 

The pandemic put that plan on hold: in 2020, the country’s GDP dropped to 0.9% from 5.4% a year earlier, and it recovered only modestly since then. Recently, Malawians also took to the streets blaming Chakwera for the high cost of living and unemployment, and for failing to fulfill the pledges he made during his political campaign.


7. Niger

Current International Dollars:  1,355 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

With 80% of its landlocked territory covered by the Sahara Desert and a rapidly growing population largely dependent upon small-scale agriculture, Niger is under threat from desertification and climate change. Food insecurity is high, as are disease and mortality rates, and the army’s recurrent clashes with jihadist group and Islamic State (ISIS) affiliate Boko Haram have displaced thousands of people. One of the main drivers of the economy—the extraction of valuable natural resources such as gold and uranium—has also suffered from volatility and low commodity prices.

Nevertheless, the largest nation in West Africa seems to have finally entered a new political and economic transition phase. Wracked by military coups since its independence from France in 1960, in 2011 Niger declared veteran opposition leader Mahamadou Issoufou winner of the presidential polls. Since then, the adoption of a new investment code, improved access to credit and somewhat faster access to water have contributed to a sharp increase in foreign direct investment. When Issoufou stepped down this year after two five-year terms in office, despite an attempted (and thwarted) military coup, Niger inaugurated a new president—the teacher and former interior minister Mohamed Bazoum—in its first democratic power transfer. And while the country has reported a relatively low number of cases, last year its economy grew by just 1.2%. A rebound, however, is in the cards, and in 2021 the IMF expects its growth to be almost 7%. The country, which is now considered a bright spot on the continent, saw its economy expanding by 5.3% in 2021 and is now projected to achieve double-digit growth by 2023.


6. Mozambique

Current International Dollars:  1,276 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

The former Portuguese colony has plenty of arable land and water, and ample energy and mineral resources. Mozambique is also strategically located, as four of the six countries it borders are landlocked and depend on it as a conduit to global trade, and over the past decade has often posted average GDP growth rates of more than 7%. Yet, it remains among the top 10 poorest countries in the world, with large sectors of the population continuing to live well below the poverty line. While a 15-year long civil war ended in 1992, severe climate conditions, corruption and political instability never went away. To make things worse, since 2017 attacks carried out by Islamic insurgent groups have plagued the gas-rich northern part of the country—up to 4,000 people were killed and another 800,000 displaced.

When, in the summer of 2020, French company Total S.A. secured $15.8 billion in funding for a liquified natural gas facility in the region—the biggest foreign direct investment in Africa ever—many hoped the project would mark the start of a new beginning. However, in April 2021—after repeated setbacks due to the escalation of violent attacks in the area—the company announced that it would suspend its operations indefinitely, depriving the country of much-needed income.


5. Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

Current International Dollars:  1,203 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

Since gaining independence from Belgium in 1960, the Congo has suffered decades of rapacious dictatorship, political instability and constant violence. The country turned a page in 2019, when Félix Antoine Tshisekedi Tshilombo—the son of legendary opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi—was elected as the new president.

The tasks he faces are daunting. His controversial predecessor Joseph Kabila—who had governed since succeeding his assassinated father in 2001—is credited for bringing an end to what is commonly referred to as the “Great African War,” a conflict that claimed up to 6 million lives, either as a direct result of fighting or because of disease and malnutrition. However, he did little to improve the lives of people who survived the war: over 60% of the country’s 92 million population still live on less than two dollars a day. On the contrary, a recent leak of financial documents shows how—while in power—he used a private bank to embezzle about $138 million of public funds. Meanwhile, roughly 60% of the country’s 92 million population is still living on less than two dollars a day.

With 80 million hectares of arable land, over a thousand minerals and valuable metals under its surface and a citizen median age of just 17, the Democratic Republic of the Congo—the World Bank says—has the potential to become one of the richest African nations and a driver of growth for the entire continent (even just by virtue of being the world’s largest producer of cobalt and Africa’s leading source of copper, two metals essential in the production of electric vehicles). Political instability, endemic corruption, continued outbreaks of the Ebola virus and now the coronavirus pandemic continue to frustrate that incredible potential.


4. Central African Republic

Current International Dollars:  996 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

Rich in gold, oil, uranium and diamonds, the Central African Republic is a very wealthy country inhabited by very poor people. However, after claiming the title of the poorest in the world for the best part of the decade, this nation of just 4.8 million is showing some signs of progress.

For the first time since its independence from France in 1960, in 2016 the Central African Republic has democratically elected a president: former mathematics professor and prime minister Faustin Archange Touadéra, who campaigned as a peacemaker who could bridge the divide between the Muslim minority and the Christian majority. Yet, while his successful election has been seen as an important step towards national reconstruction, large swaths of the country remain controlled by anti-government and militia groups. When, last December, Touadéra won a second term, rebel forces backed by the former dictator François Bozizé sought to retake control of the country.

Despite these problems and incidents, in recent years growth has somewhat picked up, driven by the timber industry and a revival of both agricultural and mining sectors. The economy is also benefitting from the partially resumed sale of diamonds, which were found to be funding inter-religious armed groups and placed under an international embargo in 2013. Yet, the government has struggled to restore sales and has seen only a fraction of the revenues it once did, , and roughly 60% of the population still live below the poverty line. To make matters worse, lockdowns and other measures taken by the government to limit the spread of the coronavirus forced many families to stay home, leaving them unable to earn an income.


3. Somalia

Current International Dollars:  953 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

Three decades of internal violence and conflict, frequent droughts and floods followed by food insecurity and displacement of people, lack of access to health services coupled with the rapid spread of communicable diseases, massive levels of unemployment among especially young people —Somalis are growing hopeless.

This country of 16 million on the Horn of Africa never seems to catch a break. A projected GDP growth of over 3% in 2020 was interrupted by the compounded effect of the coronavirus pandemic, an infestation of locusts unprecedented in modern times and intensified floods, which caused the economy to contract by 1.5%. Yet, the World Bank says, Somalia could have a brighter future: “Rapid urbanization, growing use of digital technologies, planned investments in sectors such as energy, ports, education and health can support economic growth and job creation.” A tenuous recovery is already underway, and the government has pledged its commitment to charting a course toward better resilience and growth.

About that government: in April this year, Somalia’s parliament voted to extend president Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed’s four-year term, which had expired two months earlier, for a further two years. The power grab triggered a political crisis and rival factions clashed in the capital Mogadishu. Ultimately, Mohamed bowed to the growing opposition and called for a new presidential election. Yet, experts say, there is still room for trouble.


2. South Sudan

Current International Dollars:  839 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

South Sudan is the newest nation in the world. It was born on July 9, 2011, six years after the agreement that ended the conflict with Sudan, Africa's longest-running civil war. However, violence has continued to ravage this land-locked state of roughly 11 million. Formed by the 10 southern-most territories of Sudan and home to around 60 indigenous ethnic groups, a new conflict broke out in 2013 when president Salva Kiir accused his former deputy, rebel leader Riek Machar, of staging a coup. As a result, it is estimated that as many 400,000 people were killed in clashes and nearly 4 million have been internally displaced or fled to neighboring countries.

South Sudan could be a very rich nation, but with oil accounting for almost all of its exports, falling commodity prices and rising security-related costs hammered the country's economy. Outside the oil sector, the majority of the population is employed in traditional agriculture, although violence often prevents farmers from planting or harvesting crops.

Will the people of South Sudan ever have a real shot at living more prosperous lives? After signing a ceasefire and a power-sharing agreement in 2018, last year government and opposition parties formed a unity cabinet led by president Kiir and Machar as first vice president. The accord has proved fragile—yet, to a certain extent, it helped in reducing politically motivated conflicts. It has been less effective in countering the pandemic-related oil price shock and the effects of the most severe series of floods the country has experienced in 60 years—since last summer, they have killed livestock, destroyed crops and displaced thousands of families.

Last August, however, Machar was deposed as head of his party and armed force, his former chief of staff declared himself interim chairman and commander in chief, and deadly clashes ensued. While Machar remains the vice president, the incident shows how South Sudan stays deeply divided as it marks the 10th anniversary of its independence.

On top of such intercommunal conflicts, the country is facing Covid-19 (with only about 1% of the population immunized so far) and some of most severe series of floods experienced in decades. They have killed livestock, destroyed crops and displaced thousands of families.


1. Burundi

Current International Dollars:  779 | Click To View GDP & Economic Data

The small landlocked country of Burundi, scarred by Hutu-Tutsi ethnic conflict and civil war, has the rather unenviable distinction of topping the world's poverty ranking. With about 90% of its nearly 12 million citizens relying on subsistence agriculture (and the overwhelming majority of them living on $1.25 a day or less) food scarcity is a major concern: the level of food insecurity is almost twice as high as the average for sub-Saharan African countries. Furthermore, access to water and sanitation remains very low, and less than 5% of the population has electricity. All these problems, needless to say, have been exacerbated by the pandemic.

How have things come to this, despite the civil war formally ending 15 years ago? Lack of infrastructure, endemic corruption, security concerns: the ingredients leading to extreme poverty are often the usual suspects. Pierre Nkurunziza, the charismatic former Hutu rebel turned president in 2005, had initially managed to unite the country behind him and to start rebuilding the economy. In 2015, however, the announcement that he would run for a third term—which according to the opposition was in violation of the constitution—reignited old disputes. A failed coup attempt followed, hundreds of people died in clashes and tens of thousands were displaced internally or abroad.

Nkurunziza died in the summer of 2020 at age 55—the official cause of death was cardiac arrest, although it is widely suspected the real cause was Covid-19. Evariste Ndayishimiye, an ex-general who was handpicked by Nkurunziza to succeed him at the end of his mandate, was sworn days later. So far his record has been mixed. While, like his predecessor, he has downplayed the severity of the virus and reports of human rights violations continue to emerge from the country, he made an effort to relaunch the economy and repair diplomatic relationships with his African neighbors and especially the West. His efforts paid off: both the US and the European Union have recently lifted the financial sanctions put in place following the 2015’s political crisis, and resumed aid to Burundi. Could this be a turning point for the poorest nation in the world?


Gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita.

Values are expressed in current international dollars, to the nearest whole dollar, reflecting a single year's currency exchange rates and PPP adjustments.


Rank

Country

GDP-PPP ($)

1 Burundi 779
2 Somalia 953
3 Central African Republic 996
4 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,203
5 Mozambique 1,338
6 Niger 1,355
7 Malawi 1,503
8 Liberia 1,623
9 Madagascar 1,630
10 Chad 1,637
11 Sierra Leone 1,809
12 Yemen 1,827
13 Eritrea 1,911
14 Kribati 2,281
15 Togo 2,353
16 The Gambia 2,399
17 Zimbabwe 2,408
18 Rwanda 2,410
19 Solomon Islands 2,410
20 Burkina Faso 2,444
21 Guinea-Biissau 2,483
22 Mali 2,522
23 Vanuatu 2,725
24 Uganda 2,729
25 Lesotho 2,761
26 Guinea 2,818
27 Ethiopia 3,024
28 Haiti 3,049
29 Tanzania 3,062
30 Timor-Leste 3,106
31 Comoros 3,120
32 Zambia 3,410
33 Micronesia 3,441
34 Senegal 3,699
35 Benin 3,720
36 Cameroon 3,860
37 Marshall Islands 3,877
38 Tajikistan 3,923
39 Papua New Guinea 3,936
40 Sudan 4,173
41 Nepal 4,215
42 Republic of Congo 4,288
43 São Tomé and Príncipe 4,402
44 Myanmar 4,426
45 Cambodia 4,930
46 Venezuela 5,163
47 Kyrgyz Republic 5,187
48 Tuvalu 5,289
49 Nigeria 5,377
50 Kenya 5,407
51 Pakistan 5,447
52 Samoa 5,541
53 West Bank and Gaza 5,662
54 Côte d'Ivoire 5,724
55 Bangladesh 5,733
56 Honduras 5,767
57 Nicaragua 6,133
58 Ghana 6,190
59 Djibouti 6,255
60 Mauritania 6,293
61 Tonga 6,361
62 Belize 6,738
63 Cabo Verde 6,779
64 Angola 6,820
65 India 7,314
66 Morocco 8,338
67 Lao P.D.R. 8,444
68 Uzbekistan 8,452
69 Guatemala 8,895
70 Philippines 8,900
71 Bolivia 8,901
72 Eswatini 9,409
73 El Salvador 9,551
74 Namibia 9,616
75 Nauru 10,167
76 Iraq 10,415
77 Tunisia 10,720
78 Jamaica 10,815
79 Jordan 10,821
80 Equador 11,529
81 Vietnam 11,608
82 Algeria 11,829
83 Fiji 11,902
84 Bhutan 12,135
85 Palau 12,228
86 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 12,395
87 Kosovo 12,546
88 Mongolia 12,671
89 Dominica 12,792
90 Indonesia 12,967
91 Peru 13,410
92 Egypt 13,422
93 Libya 13,489
94 Paraguay 13,724
95 St. Lucia 13,739
96 Iran 13,993
97 Sri Lanka 14,123
98 Ukraine 14,146
99 Barbados 14,224
100 South Africa 14,239
101 Moldova 14,258
102 Armenia 14,701
103 Azerbaijan 15,299
104 Turkmenistan 15,347
105 Albania 15,487
106 Colombia 15,922
107 Brazil 16,169
108 Grenada 16,288
109 Bosnia and Herzegovina 16,302
110 Gabon 16,559
111 Georgia 16,590
112 Suriname 16,793
113 Botswana 17,163
114 North Macedonia 18,069
115 Equatorial Guinea 18,698
116 Antigua and Barbuda 18,801
117 Thailand 19,028
118 China 19,090
119 Mexico 20,820
120 Dominican Republic 20,944
121 Serbia 21,243
122 Montenegro 21,387
123 Belarus 21,467
124 Costa Rica 21,592
125 Mauritius 22,311
126 Argentina 22,892
127 Maldives 23,838
128 Uruguay 23,869
129 St. Kitts and Nevis 24,236
130 Guyana 24,494
131 Trinidad and Tobago 25,526
132 Bulgaria 25,847
133 Chile 26,513
134 Kazakhstan 28,043
135 Seychelles 28,060
136 Malaysia 29,048
137 Russia 30,431
138 Panama 30,889
139 Croatia 31,112
140 Greece 31,821
141 Oman 32,327
142 Romania 33,833
143 Turkey 33,963
144 Latvia 34,169
145 The Bahamas 34,732
146 Aruba 34,902
147 Slovak Republic 35,547
148 Portugal 36,543
149 Hungary 36,849
150 Puerto Rico 37,170
151 Poland 37,323
152 Estonia 41,892
153 Spain 42,074
154 Lithuania 42,091
155 Cyprus 42,832
156 Slovenia 43,206
157 Czech Republic 43,714
158 Kuwait 44,609
159 Japan 44,935
160 Israel 44,966
161 Italy 45,267
162 New Zealand 45,880
163 Malta 47,152
164 South Korea 48,309
165 United Kingdom 48,693
166 Saudi Arabia 48,908
167 France 50,876
168 Finland 53,084
169 Canada 53,089
170 Bahrain 53,128
171 Australia 55,492
172 Andorra 55,764
173 Belgium 55,919
174 Sweden 57,425
175 Germany 58,150
176 Iceland 59,268
177 Austria 59,406
178 Taiwan Province of China 61,371
179 Netherlands 61,816
180 Denmark 63,405
181 Hong Kong SAR 65,403
182 San Marino 65,446
183 Brunei Darussalam 65,675
184 Macao SAR 67,475
185 United Staes 69,375
186 Norway 69,859
187 United Arab Emirates 74,245
188 Switzerland 78,112
189 Qatar 100,037
190 Singapore 107,677
191 Ireland 111,360
192 Luxembourg 126,569